Publications by year
Hatinguais R, Leaves I, Brown GD, Brown AJP, Brock M, da Silva RP
(In Press). CRISPR-based tools for genetic manipulation in pathogenic<i>Sporothrix</i>species.
CRISPR-based tools for genetic manipulation in pathogenicSporothrixspecies
SummarySporothrix brasiliensisis an emerging fungal pathogen frequently associated with zoonotic transmission of sporotrichosis. Although certain virulence factors have been proposed as potential sporotrichosis determinants, the scarcity of molecular tools for reverse genetics studies onSporothrixhas significantly impeded the dissection of mechanisms underlying the disease. Here, we demonstrate that PEG-mediated protoplast transformation is a powerful method for heterologous expression inS. brasiliensis, S. schenckiiandS. chilensis. Combined with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, this transformation protocol allowed the deletion of the putative DHN-melanin synthase genepks1, which is a proposed virulence factor ofSporothrixspecies. To improve in locus integration of deletion constructs, we deleted the KU80homologue that is critical for non-homologous end-joining DNA repair. The use ofS. brasiliensisΔku80strains enhanced homologous-directed repair during transformation resulting in increased targeted gene deletion. In conclusion, our CRISPR/Cas9-based transformation protocol provides an efficient tool for targeted gene manipulation inSporothrixspecies. Abstract
Milhomem Cruz-Leite VR, Tomazett MV, Santana de Curcio J, Sbaraini N, Bailão AM, Gonçales RA, Moraes D, Pereira M, Vainstein MH, Schrank A, et al
(2022). Bioluminescence imaging in Paracoccidioides spp.: a tool to monitor the infectious processes. Microbes Infect
Bioluminescence imaging in Paracoccidioides spp.: a tool to monitor the infectious processes.
The genus Paracoccidioides comprises the species complex causing paracoccidioidomycoses (PCM). These fungi are a serious public health problem due to the long-term drug therapy, follow-up treatment, and frequent sequelae generated by the infection, such as pulmonary fibrosis. In this sense, the objective of this work was to generate bioluminescent reporter strains of Paracoccidioides spp. harboring a thermostable, red-shifted luciferase gene under the control of different constitutive promoters. The strains were generated by the integration of a species-specific codon-optimized luciferase gene upon actin or enolase promoter's control. The insertion of the constructs in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii yeast cells were performed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The results demonstrated the presence of several transformants harboring the luciferase gene. These transformants were further confirmed by the expression of luciferase and by the presence of the hygromycin resistance gene. Moreover, the luciferase activity could be detected in in vitro bioluminescence assays and in vivo models of infection. In general, this work presents the methodology for the construction of bioluminescent strains of Paracoccidioides spp. highlighting potential promoters and proposing an in vivo model, in which those strains could be used for the systemic study of PCM. Abstract
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Wieder C, Peres da Silva R, Witts J, Jäger CM, Geib E, Brock M
(2022). Characterisation of ascocorynin biosynthesis in the purple jellydisc fungus Ascocoryne sarcoides. Fungal Biol Biotechnol
Characterisation of ascocorynin biosynthesis in the purple jellydisc fungus Ascocoryne sarcoides.
BACKGROUND: Non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-like (NRPS-like) enzymes are highly enriched in fungal genomes and can be discriminated into reducing and non-reducing enzymes. Non-reducing NRPS-like enzymes possess a C-terminal thioesterase domain that catalyses the condensation of two identical aromatic α-keto acids under the formation of enzyme-specific substrate-interconnecting core structures such as terphenylquinones, furanones, butyrolactones or dioxolanones. Ascocoryne sarcoides produces large quantities of ascocorynin, which structurally resembles a terphenylquinone produced from the condensation of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and phenylpyruvate. Since the parallel use of two different substrates by a non-reducing NRPS-like enzyme appeared as highly unusual, we investigated the biosynthesis of ascocorynin in A. sarcoides. RESULTS: Here, we searched the genome of A. sarcoides for genes coding for non-reducing NRPS-like enzymes. A single candidate gene was identified that was termed acyN. Heterologous gene expression confirmed that AcyN is involved in ascocorynin production but only produces the non-hydroxylated precursor polyporic acid. Although acyN is embedded in an ascocorynin biosynthesis gene cluster, a gene encoding a monooxygenase required for the hydroxylation of polyporic acid was not present. Expression analyses of all monooxygenase-encoding genes from A. sarcoides identified a single candidate that showed the same expression pattern as acyN. Accordingly, heterologous co-expression of acyN and the monooxygenase gene resulted in the production of ascocorynin. Structural modelling of the monooxygenase suggests that the hydrophobic substrate polyporic acid enters the monooxygenase from a membrane facing entry site and is converted into the more hydrophilic product ascocorynin, which prevents its re-entry for a second round of hydroxylation. CONCLUSION: This study characterises the first naturally occurring polyporic acid synthetase from an ascomycete. It confirms the high substrate and product specificity of this non-reducing NRPS-like enzyme and highlights the requirement of a monooxygenase to produce the terphenylquinone ascocorynin. Abstract
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Resendiz-Sharpe A, da Silva RP, Geib E, Vanderbeke L, Seldeslachts L, Hupko C, Brock M, Lagrou K, Vande Velde G
(2022). Longitudinal multimodal imaging-compatible mouse model of triazole-sensitive and -resistant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. DISEASE MODELS & MECHANISMS
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de Assis LJ, Bain JM, Liddle C, Leaves I, Hacker C, Peres da Silva R, Yuecel R, Bebes A, Stead D, Childers DS, et al
(2022). Nature of β-1,3-Glucan-Exposing Features on Candida albicans Cell Wall and Their Modulation. mBio
Nature of β-1,3-Glucan-Exposing Features on Candida albicans Cell Wall and Their Modulation.
Candida albicans exists as a commensal of mucosal surfaces and the gastrointestinal tract without causing pathology. However, this fungus is also a common cause of mucosal and systemic infections when antifungal immune defenses become compromised. The activation of antifungal host defenses depends on the recognition of fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as β-1,3-glucan. In C. albicans, most β-1,3-glucan is present in the inner cell wall, concealed by the outer mannan layer, but some β-1,3-glucan becomes exposed at the cell surface. In response to host signals, such as lactate, C. albicans induces the Xog1 exoglucanase, which shaves exposed β-1,3-glucan from the cell surface, thereby reducing phagocytic recognition. We show here that β-1,3-glucan is exposed at bud scars and punctate foci on the lateral wall of yeast cells, that this exposed β-1,3-glucan is targeted during phagocytic attack, and that lactate-induced masking reduces β-1,3-glucan exposure at bud scars and at punctate foci. β-1,3-Glucan masking depends upon protein kinase a (PKA) signaling. We reveal that inactivating PKA, or its conserved downstream effectors, Sin3 and Mig1/Mig2, affects the amounts of the Xog1 and Eng1 glucanases in the C. albicans secretome and modulates β-1,3-glucan exposure. Furthermore, perturbing PKA, Sin3, or Mig1/Mig2 attenuates the virulence of lactate-exposed C. albicans cells in Galleria. Taken together, the data are consistent with the idea that β-1,3-glucan masking contributes to Candida pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Microbes that coexist with humans have evolved ways of avoiding or evading our immunological defenses. These include the masking by these microbes of their "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs), which are recognized as "foreign" and used to activate protective immunity. The commensal fungus Candida albicans masks the proinflammatory PAMP β-1,3-glucan, which is an essential component of its cell wall. Most of this β-1,3-glucan is hidden beneath an outer layer of the cell wall on these microbes, but some can become exposed at the fungal cell surface. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy, we examine the nature of the exposed β-1,3-glucan at C. albicans bud scars and at punctate foci on the lateral cell wall, and we show that these features are targeted by innate immune cells. We also reveal that downstream effectors of protein kinase a (Mig1/Mig2, Sin3) regulate the secretion of major glucanases, modulate the levels of β-1,3-glucan exposure, and influence the virulence of C. albicans in an invertebrate model of systemic infection. Our data support the view that β-1,3-glucan masking contributes to immune evasion and the virulence of a major fungal pathogen of humans. Abstract
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Zamith-Miranda D, Peres da Silva R, Couvillion SP, Bredeweg EL, Burnet MC, Coelho C, Camacho E, Nimrichter L, Puccia R, Almeida IC, et al
(2021). Omics Approaches for Understanding Biogenesis, Composition and Functions of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles. Frontiers in Genetics
Omics Approaches for Understanding Biogenesis, Composition and Functions of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer structures released by organisms from all kingdoms of life. The diverse biogenesis pathways of EVs result in a wide variety of physical properties and functions across different organisms. Fungal EVs were first described in 2007 and different omics approaches have been fundamental to understand their composition, biogenesis, and function. In this review, we discuss the role of omics in elucidating fungal EVs biology. Transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics have each enabled the molecular characterization of fungal EVs, providing evidence that these structures serve a wide array of functions, ranging from key carriers of cell wall biosynthetic machinery to virulence factors. Omics in combination with genetic approaches have been instrumental in determining both biogenesis and cargo loading into EVs. We also discuss how omics technologies are being employed to elucidate the role of EVs in antifungal resistance, disease biomarkers, and their potential use as vaccines. Finally, we review recent advances in analytical technology and multi-omic integration tools, which will help to address key knowledge gaps in EVs biology and translate basic research information into urgently needed clinical applications such as diagnostics, and immuno- and chemotherapies to fungal infections. Abstract
Peres da Silva R, Longo LGV, Cunha JPCD, Sobreira TJP, Rodrigues ML, Faoro H, Goldenberg S, Alves LR, Puccia R
(2019). Comparison of the RNA Content of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. Cells
Comparison of the RNA Content of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii.
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause human paracoccidioidomycosis. We have previously characterized the Abstract
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Alves LR, Peres da Silva R, Sanchez DA, Zamith-Miranda D, Rodrigues ML, Goldenberg S, Puccia R, Nosanchuk JD
(2019). Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated RNA Release in Histoplasma capsulatum. mSphere
Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated RNA Release in Histoplasma capsulatum.
Eukaryotic cells, including fungi, release extracellular vesicles (EVs). These lipid bilayered compartments play essential roles in cellular communication and pathogenesis. EV composition is complex and includes proteins, glycans, pigments, and RNA. RNAs with putative roles in pathogenesis have been described in EVs produced by fungi. Here we describe the RNA content in EVs produced by the G186AR and G217B strains of Histoplasma capsulatum, an important human-pathogenic fungal pathogen. A total of 124 mRNAs were identified in both strains. In this set of RNA classes, 93 transcripts were enriched in EVs from the G217B strain, whereas 31 were enriched in EVs produced by the G186AR strain. This result suggests that there are important strain-specific properties in the mRNA composition of fungal EVs. We also identified short fragments (25 to 40 nucleotides in length) that were strain specific, with a greater number identified in EVs produced by the G217B strain. Remarkably, the most highly enriched processes were stress responses and translation. Half of these fragments aligned to the reverse strand of the transcript, suggesting the occurrence of microRNA (miRNA)-like molecules in fungal EVs. We also compared the transcriptome profiles of H. capsulatum with the RNA composition of EVs, and no correlation was observed. Taking the results together, our study provided information about the RNA molecules present in H. capsulatum EVs and about the differences in composition between the strains. In addition, we found no correlation between the most highly expressed transcripts in the cell and their presence in the EVs, reinforcing the idea that the RNAs were directed to the EVs by a regulated mechanism.IMPORTANCE Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in cellular communication and pathogenesis. The RNA molecules in EVs have been implicated in a variety of processes. EV-associated RNA classes have recently been described in pathogenic fungi; however, only a few reports of studies describing the RNAs in fungal EVs are available. Improved knowledge of EV-associated RNA will contribute to the understanding of their role during infection. In this study, we described the RNA content in EVs produced by two isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum Our results add this important pathogen to the current short list of fungal species with the ability to use EVs for the extracellular release of RNA. Abstract
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Peres da Silva R, Martins SDT, Rizzo J, Dos Reis FCG, Joffe LS, Vainstein M, Kmetzsch L, Oliveira DL, Puccia R, Goldenberg S, et al
(2018). Golgi Reassembly and Stacking Protein (GRASP) Participates in Vesicle-Mediated RNA Export in Cryptococcus Neoformans. Genes (Basel)
Golgi Reassembly and Stacking Protein (GRASP) Participates in Vesicle-Mediated RNA Export in Cryptococcus Neoformans.
Golgi reassembly and stacking protein (GRASP) is required for polysaccharide secretion and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. In fungal species, extracellular vesicles (EVs) participate in the export of polysaccharides, proteins and RNA. In the present work, we investigated if EV-mediated RNA export is functionally connected with GRASP in C. neoformans using a graspΔ mutant. Since GRASP-mediated unconventional secretion involves autophagosome formation in yeast, we included the atg7Δ mutant with defective autophagic mechanisms in our analysis. All fungal strains exported EVs but deletion of GRASP or ATG7 profoundly affected vesicular dimensions. The mRNA content of the graspΔ EVs differed substantially from that of the other two strains. The transcripts associated to the endoplasmic reticulum were highly abundant transcripts in graspΔ EVs. Among non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), tRNA fragments were the most abundant in both mutant EVs but graspΔ EVs alone concentrated 22 exclusive sequences. In general, our results showed that the EV RNA content from atg7Δ and WT were more related than the RNA content of graspΔ, suggesting that GRASP, but not the autophagy regulator Atg7, is involved in the EV export of RNA. This is a previously unknown function for a key regulator of unconventional secretion in eukaryotic cells. Abstract
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Peres da Silva R, Puccia R, Rodrigues ML, Oliveira DL, Joffe LS, César GV, Nimrichter L, Goldenberg S, Alves LR
(2015). Extracellular vesicle-mediated export of fungal RNA. Sci Rep
Extracellular vesicle-mediated export of fungal RNA.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the biology of various organisms, including fungi, in which they are required for the trafficking of molecules across the cell wall. Fungal EVs contain a complex combination of macromolecules, including proteins, lipids and glycans. In this work, we aimed to describe and characterize RNA in EV preparations from the human pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans, Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and Candida albicans, and from the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The EV RNA content consisted mostly of molecules less than 250 nt long and the reads obtained aligned with intergenic and intronic regions or specific positions within the mRNA. We identified 114 ncRNAs, among them, six small nucleolar (snoRNA), two small nuclear (snRNA), two ribosomal (rRNA) and one transfer (tRNA) common to all the species considered, together with 20 sequences with features consistent with miRNAs. We also observed some copurified mRNAs, as suggested by reads covering entire transcripts, including those involved in vesicle-mediated transport and metabolic pathways. We characterized for the first time RNA molecules present in EVs produced by fungi. Our results suggest that RNA-containing vesicles may be determinant for various biological processes, including cell communication and pathogenesis. Abstract
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Peres da Silva R, Heiss C, Black I, Azadi P, Gerlach JQ, Travassos LR, Joshi L, Kilcoyne M, Puccia R
(2015). Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors. Sci Rep
Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides pathogenic species transport polysaccharide and expose ligands for DC-SIGN receptors.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate non-conventional transport of molecules across the fungal cell wall. We aimed at describing the carbohydrate composition and surface carbohydrate epitopes of EVs isolated from the pathogenic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii using standard procedures. Total EV carbohydrates were ethanol-precipitated from preparations depleted of lipids and proteins, then analyzed by chemical degradation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and size-exclusion chromatography. EV glycosyl residues of Glc, Man, and Gal comprised most probably two major components: a high molecular mass 4,6-α-glucan and a galactofuranosylmannan, possibly an oligomer, bearing a 2-α-Manp main chain linked to β-Galf (1,3) and α-Manp (1,6) end units. The results also suggested the presence of small amounts of a (1→6)-Manp polymer, (1→3)-glucan and (1→6)-glucan. Glycan microarrays allowed identification of EV surface lectin(s), while plant lectin microarray profiling revealed terminal Man and GlcNAc residues exposed at the EVs surface. Mammalian lectin microarray profiling showed that DC-SIGN receptors recognized surface carbohydrate in Paracoccidioides EVs. Our results suggest that oligosaccharides, cytoplasmic storage, and cell wall polysaccharides can be exported in fungal EVs, which also expose surface PAMPs and lectins. The role of these newly identified components in the interaction with the host remains to be unraveled. Abstract
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De Oliveira HC, De Fátima Da Silva J, Matsumoto MT, Marcos CM, Peres Da Silva R, Moraes Da Silva RA, Labate MTV, Labate CA, Almeida AMF, Giannini MJSM, et al
(2014). Alterations of protein expression in conditions of copper-deprivation for Paracoccidioides lutzii in the presence of extracellular matrix components. BMC Microbiology
Alterations of protein expression in conditions of copper-deprivation for Paracoccidioides lutzii in the presence of extracellular matrix components
Background: Paracoccidioides spp is a fungi genus and the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. The strategies of infection used by these pathogens involve the expression of proteins related to adaptation to the host, particularly regarding the uptake of micronutrients. This study analyzed the adhesion of Paracoccidioides lutzii during conditions of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) deprivation, while also evaluating the proteins expressed in conditions of Cu depletion in the presence of four extracellular matrix (ECM) components (laminin, fibronectin and types I and IV collagen). Results: We cultured the P. lutzii in a chemically defined media without Cu and Fe. The fungus was then placed in contact with different ECM components and adhesion was evaluated. A significant increase in binding to all ECM components was observed when the fungus was cultured without Cu; which might be related to some adhesins expression. A proteomic assay was developed and revealed 39 proteins expressed that are involved in processes such as virulence, protein synthesis, metabolism, energy, transcription, transport, stress response and the cell cycle when the fungus was interacting with the ECM components. The up-regulated expression of two important adhesins, enolase and 14-3-3, was observed at the fungal cell wall during the interaction with the ECM components, indicating the role of these proteins in the Paracoccidioides - host interaction. Conclusions: This study is important for determining prospective proteins that may be involved in the interaction of Paracoccidioides with a host. Understanding the adaptive response to different growth conditions, elucidating the processes of adhesion and cell invasion, and identifying the proteins that are differentially expressed during the fungus-host interaction may help elucidate mechanisms used for survival and growth of Paracoccidioides in various human tissues. Abstract
Longo LVG, Nakayasu ES, Matsuo AL, Peres da Silva R, Sobreira TJP, Vallejo MC, Ganiko L, Almeida IC, Puccia R
(2013). Identification of human plasma proteins associated with the cell wall of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. FEMS Microbiology Letters
Identification of human plasma proteins associated with the cell wall of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are thermodimorphic species that cause paracoccidioidomycosis. The cell wall is the outermost fungal organelle to form an interface with the host. A number of host effector compounds, including immunologically active molecules, circulate in the plasma. In the present work, we extracted cell-wall-associated proteins from the yeast pathogenic phase of P. brasiliensis, isolate Pb3, grown in the presence of human plasma and analyzed bound plasma proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transport, complement activation/regulation, and coagulation pathway were the most abundant functional groups identified. Proteins related to iron/copper acquisition, immunoglobulins, and protease inhibitors were also detected. Several human plasma proteins described here have not been previously reported as interacting with fungal components, specifically, clusterin, hemopexin, transthyretin, ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B-100. Additionally, we observed increased phagocytosis by J774.16 macrophages of Pb3 grown in plasma, suggesting that plasma proteins interacting with P. brasiliensis cell wall might be interfering in the fungal relationship with the host. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Abstract
Albuquerque PC, Cordero RJB, Fonseca FL, Peres da Silva R, Ramos CL, Miranda KR, Casadevall A, Puccia R, Nosanchuk JD, Nimrichter L, et al
(2012). A Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycan shares serologic and functional properties with cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan. Fungal Genetics and Biology
A Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycan shares serologic and functional properties with cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan
The cell wall of the yeast form of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is enriched with α1,3-glucans. In Cryptococcus neoformans, α1,3-glucans interact with glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), a heteropolysaccharide that is essential for fungal virulence. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of P. brasiliensis glycans sharing properties with cryptococcal GXM. Protein database searches in P. brasiliensis revealed the presence of sequences homologous to those coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of GXM and capsular architecture in C. neoformans. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised to cryptococcal GXM bound to P. brasiliensis cells. Using protocols that were previously established for extraction and analysis of C. neoformans GXM, we recovered a P. brasiliensis glycan fraction composed of mannose and galactose, in addition to small amounts of glucose, xylose and rhamnose. In comparison with the C. neoformans GXM, the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction components had smaller molecular dimensions. The P. brasiliensis components, nevertheless, reacted with different GXM-binding mAbs. Extracellular vesicle fractions of P. brasiliensis also reacted with a GXM-binding mAb, suggesting that the polysaccharide-like molecule is exported to the extracellular space in secretory vesicles. An acapsular mutant of C. neoformans incorporated molecules from the P. brasiliensis extract onto the cell wall, resulting in the formation of surface networks that resembled the cryptococcal capsule. Coating the C. neoformans acapsular mutant with the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction resulted in protection against phagocytosis by murine macrophages. These results suggest that P. brasiliensis and C. neoformans share metabolic pathways required for the synthesis of similar polysaccharides and that P. brasiliensis yeast cell walls have molecules that mimic certain aspects of C. neoformans GXM. These findings are important because they provide additional evidence for the sharing of antigenically similar components across phylogenetically distant fungal species. Since GXM has been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of C. neoformans and to elicit protective antibodies, the finding of similar molecules in P. brasiliensis raises the possibility that these glycans play similar functions in paracoccidiomycosis. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Abstract
Peres da Silva R, Vallejo MC, Marcio RL, Alves LR, Goldenberg S, Puccia R
(2012). Analysis of extracellular vesicle components from Paracoccidioides. Author URL
Peres da Silva R, Matsumoto MT, Braz JD, Voltan AR, de Oliveira HC, Soares CP, Mendes Giannini MJS
(2011). Differential gene expression analysis of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis during keratinocyte infection. J Med Microbiol
(Pt 3), 269-280.
Differential gene expression analysis of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis during keratinocyte infection.
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important systemic fungal diseases in Latin America. This initiates in lung tissue and can subsequently disseminate to other tissues. Clinical manifestations range from localized forms to disseminated disease that can progress to lethality, probably depending on the relationships among the virulence of the fungus, the immune response and the ability to interact with the surface structures and invade epithelial cells and mononuclear cells of the host. It is generally regarded as a multifocal disease, with oral lesions as the prominent feature. The aim of this study was to evaluate P. brasiliensis yeast infection in normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs). The differential expression of mRNAs and proteins was also determined when the fungus was placed in contact with the cell in order to characterize differentially expressed genes and proteins during P. brasiliensis infection. After contact with NOKs, the fungus appeared to induce alterations in the cells, which showed cellular extensions and cavitations, probably resulting from changes in the actin cytoskeleton seen at 5 and 8 h after infection. Levels of protein expression were higher after reisolation of the fungus from infected NOK culture compared with culture of the fungus in medium. The analysis identified transcripts related to 19 proteins involved in different biological processes. Transcripts were found with multiple functions including induction of cytokines, protein metabolism, alternative carbon metabolism, zinc transport and the stress response during contact with NOKs. The proteins found suggested that the yeast was in a stress situation, as indicated by the presence of RDS1. Nevertheless, the yeast seemed to be proliferating and metabolically active, as shown by the presence of a proteasome, short-chain acetylator, glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase and ADP/ATP carrier transcripts. Additionally, metabolic pathways may have been activated in order to eliminate toxic substances from the cell as a zinc transporter was detected, which is a potential target for the development of future drugs. Abstract
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