Publications by year
Routledge D, Rogers S, Ono Y, Brunt L, Meniel V, Tornillo G, Ashktorab H, Phesse TJ, Scholpp S
(2022). The scaffolding protein flot2 promotes cytoneme-based transport of wnt3 in gastric cancer. eLife
The scaffolding protein flot2 promotes cytoneme-based transport of wnt3 in gastric cancer
The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes during development and many diseases, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Despite their hydrophobic nature, Wnt proteins exert their function over long distances to induce paracrine signalling. Recent studies have identified several factors involved in Wnt secretion; however, our understanding of how Wnt ligands are transported between cells to interact with their cognate receptors is still debated. Here, we demonstrate that gastric cancer cells utilise cytonemes to transport Wnt3 intercellularly to promote proliferation and cell survival. Furthermore, we identify the membrane-bound scaffolding protein Flotillin-2 (Flot2), frequently overexpressed in gastric cancer, as a modulator of these cytonemes. Together with the Wnt co-receptor and cytoneme initiator Ror2, Flot2 determines the number and length of Wnt3 cytonemes in gastric cancer. Finally, we show that Flotillins are also necessary for Wnt8a cytonemes during zebrafish embryogenesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism for Flotillin-mediated Wnt transport on cytonemes in development and disease. Abstract
Rogers S, Scholpp S (2022). Vertebrate Wnt5a – at the crossroads of cellular signalling. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 125, 3-10.
Wyrzykowska P, Rogers S, Chahwan R (2021). Measuring Real-time DNA/RNA Nuclease Activity through Fluorescence. BIO-PROTOCOL, 11(21).
Rogers S, Scholpp S
(2021). Preserving Cytonemes for Immunocytochemistry of Cultured Adherent Cells. In (Ed)
Preserving Cytonemes for Immunocytochemistry of Cultured Adherent Cells.
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Brunt L, Greicius G, Rogers S, Evans BD, Virshup DM, Wedgwood KCA, Scholpp S
(2021). Vangl2 promotes the formation of long cytonemes to enable distant Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Nat Commun
Vangl2 promotes the formation of long cytonemes to enable distant Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Wnt signaling regulates cell proliferation and cell differentiation as well as migration and polarity during development. However, it is still unclear how the Wnt ligand distribution is precisely controlled to fulfil these functions. Here, we show that the planar cell polarity protein Vangl2 regulates the distribution of Wnt by cytonemes. In zebrafish epiblast cells, mouse intestinal telocytes and human gastric cancer cells, Vangl2 activation generates extremely long cytonemes, which branch and deliver Wnt protein to multiple cells. The Vangl2-activated cytonemes increase Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the surrounding cells. Concordantly, Vangl2 inhibition causes fewer and shorter cytonemes to be formed and reduces paracrine Wnt/β-catenin signaling. A mathematical model simulating these Vangl2 functions on cytonemes in zebrafish gastrulation predicts a shift of the signaling gradient, altered tissue patterning, and a loss of tissue domain sharpness. We confirmed these predictions during anteroposterior patterning in the zebrafish neural plate. In summary, we demonstrate that Vangl2 is fundamental to paracrine Wnt/β-catenin signaling by controlling cytoneme behaviour. Abstract
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Sheppard EC, Rogers S, Harmer NJ, Chahwan R
(2019). A universal fluorescence-based toolkit for real-time quantification of DNA and RNA nuclease activity. Sci Rep
A universal fluorescence-based toolkit for real-time quantification of DNA and RNA nuclease activity.
DNA and RNA nucleases play a critical role in a growing number of cellular processes ranging from DNA repair to immune surveillance. Nevertheless, many nucleases have unknown or poorly characterized activities. Elucidating nuclease substrate specificities and co-factors can support a more definitive understanding of cellular mechanisms in physiology and disease. Using fluorescence-based methods, we present a quick, safe, cost-effective, and real-time versatile nuclease assay, which uniquely studies nuclease enzyme kinetics. In conjunction with a substrate library we can now analyse nuclease catalytic rates, directionality, and substrate preferences. The assay is sensitive enough to detect kinetics of repair enzymes when confronted with DNA mismatches or DNA methylation sites. We have also extended our analysis to study the kinetics of human single-strand DNA nuclease TREX2, DNA polymerases, RNA, and RNA:DNA nucleases. These nucleases are involved in DNA repair, immune regulation, and have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and immune disorders. Abstract
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Rogers SL, Kaufman J
(2016). Location, location, location: the evolutionary history of CD1 genes and the NKR-P1/ligand systems. Immunogenetics
Location, location, location: the evolutionary history of CD1 genes and the NKR-P1/ligand systems
CD1 genes encode cell surface molecules that present lipid antigens to various kinds of T lymphocytes of the immune system. The structures of CD1 genes and molecules are like the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I system, the loading of antigen and the tissue distribution for CD1 molecules are like those in the class II system, and phylogenetic analyses place CD1 between class I and class II sequences, altogether leading to the notion that CD1 is a third ancient system of antigen presentation molecules. However, thus far, CD1 genes have only been described in mammals, birds and reptiles, leaving major questions as to their origin and evolution. In this review, we recount a little history of the field so far and then consider what has been learned about the structure and functional attributes of CD1 genes and molecules in marsupials, birds and reptiles. We describe the central conundrum of CD1 evolution, the genomic location of CD1 genes in the MHC and/or MHC paralogous regions in different animals, considering the three models of evolutionary history that have been proposed. We describe the natural killer (NK) receptors NKR-P1 and ligands, also found in different genomic locations for different animals. We discuss the consequence of these three models, one of which includes the repudiation of a guiding principle for the last 20 years, that two rounds of genome-wide duplication at the base of the vertebrates provided the extra MHC genes necessary for the emergence of adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. Abstract
Salomonsen J, Chattaway JA, Chan ACY, Parker A, Huguet S, Marston DA, Rogers SL, Wu Z, Smith AL, Staines K, et al (2014). Sequence of a Complete Chicken BG Haplotype Shows Dynamic Expansion and Contraction of Two Gene Lineages with Particular Expression Patterns. PLoS Genetics, 10(6), e1004417-e1004417.
Rogers SL, Zhao Y, Jiang X, Eaves CJ, Mager DL, Rouhi A
(2010). Expression of the leukemic prognostic marker CD7 is linked to epigenetic modifications in chronic myeloid leukemia. Mol Cancer
Expression of the leukemic prognostic marker CD7 is linked to epigenetic modifications in chronic myeloid leukemia.
BACKGROUND: Expression levels of the cell surface glycoprotein, CD7, and the serine protease, elastase 2 (ELA2), in the leukemic cells of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have been associated with clinical outcome. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the variable expression of these genes in the leukemic cells. RESULTS: to address this question, we compared the level of their expression with the DNA methylation and histone acetylation status of 5' sequences of both genes in leukemic cell lines and primitive (lin-CD34+) leukemic cells from chronic phase CML patients. DNA methylation of the ELA2 gene promoter did not correlate with its expression pattern in lin-CD34+ cells from chronic phase CML patient samples even though there was clear differential DNA methylation of this locus in ELA2-expressing and non-expressing cell lines. In contrast, we found a strong relation between CD7 expression and transcription-permissive chromatin modifications, both at the level of DNA methylation and histone acetylation with evidence of hypomethylation of the CD7 promoter region in the lin-CD34+ cells from CML patients with high CD7 expression. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate a link between epigenetic modifications and CD7 expression in primitive CML cells. Abstract
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Lai CB, Zhang Y, Rogers SL, Mager DL
(2009). Creation of the two isoforms of rodent NKG2D was driven by a B1 retrotransposon insertion. Nucleic Acids Res
Creation of the two isoforms of rodent NKG2D was driven by a B1 retrotransposon insertion.
The mouse gene for the natural killer (NK) cell-activating receptor Nkg2d produces two protein isoforms, NKG2D-S and NKG2D-L, which differ by 13 amino acids at the N-terminus and have different signalling capabilities. These two isoforms are produced through differential splicing, but their regulation has not been investigated. In this study, we show that rat Nkg2d has the same splicing pattern as that of the mouse, and we mapped transcriptional start sites in both species. We found that the splice forms arise from alternative promoters and that the NKG2D-L promoter is derived from a rodent B1 retrotransposon that inserted before mouse-rat divergence. This B1 insertion is associated with loss of a nearby splice acceptor site that subsequently allowed creation of the short NKG2D isoform found in mouse but not human. Transient reporter assays indicate that the B1 element is a strong promoter with no inherent lymphoid tissue-specificity. We have also identified different binding sites for the ETS family member GABP within both the mouse and rat B1 elements that are necessary for high-promoter activity and for full Nkg2d-L expression. These findings demonstrate that a retroelement insertion has led to gene-regulatory change and functional diversification of rodent NKG2D. Abstract
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Rouhi A, Rogers SL, Zhao Y, Eaves CJ, Mager DL
(2009). EPIGENETIC MODIFICATIONS CORRELATE WITH EXPRESSION OF THE LEUKEMIC PROGNOSTIC MARKER CD7 IN CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA. Author URL
Rogers SL, Viertlboeck BC, Göbel TW, Kaufman J (2008). Avian NK activities, cells and receptors. Seminars in Immunology, 20(6), 353-360.
Rogers SL, Kaufman J
(2008). High allelic polymorphism, moderate sequence diversity and diversifying selection for B-NK but not B-lec, the pair of lectin-like receptor genes in the chicken MHC. Immunogenetics
High allelic polymorphism, moderate sequence diversity and diversifying selection for B-NK but not B-lec, the pair of lectin-like receptor genes in the chicken MHC.
We previously characterised the C-type lectin-like receptor genes B-NK and B-lec, located next to each other in opposite orientations in the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We showed that B-NK is an inhibitory receptor expressed on natural killer cells, whereas B-lec is an activation-induced receptor with a broader expression pattern. It is interesting to note that the chicken MHC has been linked with resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic herpes virus. Recent reports show that the C-type lectin-like receptors in mouse and rat (Ly49H, NKR-P1 and Clr) are associated with resistance to another herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV). Therefore, B-NK and B-lec are potential candidate genes for the MHC-mediated resistance to MDV. In this paper, we report that both genes encode glycosylated type II membrane proteins that form disulphide-linked homodimers. The gene sequences from nine lines of domestic chicken representing seven haplotypes show that B-lec is well conserved between the different haplotypes, apparently under purifying selection. In contrast, B-NK has high allelic polymorphism and moderate sequence diversity, with 21 nucleotide changes in the complementary deoxyribonucleic acids (cDNAs) resulting in 20 amino acid substitutions. The allelic variations include substitutions, an indel and loss/gain of three predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. Strikingly, there is as much as 7% divergence between protein sequences of B-NK from different haplotypes, greater than the difference observed between the highly polymorphic human KIR NK receptors. Analysis of ds and dn reveal evidence of strong positive selection for B-NK to be polymorphic at the protein level, and modelling demonstrates significant variation between haplotypes in the predicted ligand binding face of B-NK. Abstract
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Rogers SL, Rouhi A, Takei F, Mager DL
(2006). A role for DNA hypomethylation and histone acetylation in maintaining allele-specific expression of mouse NKG2A in developing and mature NK cells. J Immunol
A role for DNA hypomethylation and histone acetylation in maintaining allele-specific expression of mouse NKG2A in developing and mature NK cells.
The repertoire of receptors that is expressed by NK cells is critical for their ability to kill virally infected or transformed cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine whether and when NK receptor genes are transcribed during hemopoiesis remain unclear. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of a CpG-rich region in the mouse NKG2A gene is associated with transcription of NKG2A in ex vivo NK cells and NK cell lines. This observation was extended to various developmental stages of NK cells sorted from bone marrow, in which we demonstrate that the CpGs are methylated in the NKG2A-negative stages (hemopoietic stem cells, NK progenitors, and NKG2A-negative NK cells), and hypomethylated specifically in the NKG2A-positive NK cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DNA methylation is important in maintaining the allele-specific expression of NKG2A. Finally, we show that acetylated histones are associated with the CpG-rich region in NKG2A positive, but not negative, cell lines, and that treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin a alone is sufficient to induce NKG2A expression. Treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine only is insufficient to induce transcription, but cotreatment with both drugs resulted in a significantly greater induction, suggesting a cooperative role for DNA methylation and histone acetylation status in regulating gene expression. These results enhance our understanding of the formation and maintenance of NK receptor repertoires in developing and mature NK cells. Abstract
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Rogers SL, Göbel TW, Viertlboeck BC, Milne S, Beck S, Kaufman J
(2005). Characterization of the chicken C-type lectin-like receptors B-NK and B-lec suggests that the NK complex and the MHC share a common ancestral region. J Immunol
Characterization of the chicken C-type lectin-like receptors B-NK and B-lec suggests that the NK complex and the MHC share a common ancestral region.
The sequencing of the chicken MHC led to the identification of two open reading frames, designated B-NK and B-lec, that were predicted to encode C-type lectin domains. C-type lectin domains are not encoded in the MHC of any animal described to date; therefore, this observation was completely unexpected, particularly given that the chicken has a "minimal essential MHC." in this study, we describe the initial characterization of the B-NK and B-lec genes, and show that they share greatest homology with C-type lectin-like receptors encoded in the human NK complex (NKC), in particular NKR-P1 and lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1), respectively. In common with NKR-P1 and LLT1, B-NK and B-lec are located next to each other and transcribed in opposite orientation. Like human NKR-P1, B-NK has a functional inhibitory signaling motif in the cytoplasmic tail and is expressed in NK cells. In contrast, B-lec contains an endocytosis motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and like LLT1, is an early activation Ag. Further analysis leads us to propose that there are four subgroups of C-type lectin-like receptors in the NKC, which arose as a result of duplication events. Moreover, this analysis suggests that the NKC may be considered a fifth paralogous region, and therefore shares an ancient common origin with the MHC. This provides evidence that C-type lectin-like receptors were present in the preduplication, primordial MHC region, and suggests that an original function of MHC molecules was for recognition by NK cell receptors encoded nearby. Abstract
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Salomonsen J, Sørensen MR, Marston DA, Rogers SL, Collen T, van Hateren A, Smith AL, Beal RK, Skjødt K, Kaufman J, et al
(2005). Two CD1 genes map to the chicken MHC, indicating that CD1 genes are ancient and likely to have been present in the primordial MHC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Two CD1 genes map to the chicken MHC, indicating that CD1 genes are ancient and likely to have been present in the primordial MHC.
CD1 molecules play an important role in the immune system, presenting lipid-containing antigens to T and NKT cells. CD1 genes have long been thought to be as ancient as MHC class I and II genes, based on various arguments, but thus far they have been described only in mammals. Here we describe two CD1 genes in chickens, demonstrating that the CD1 system was present in the last common ancestor of mammals and birds at least 300 million years ago. In phylogenetic analysis, these sequences cluster with CD1 sequences from other species but are not obviously like any particular CD1 isotype. Sequence analysis suggests that the expressed proteins bind hydrophobic molecules and are recycled through intracellular vesicles. RNA expression is strong in lymphoid tissues but weaker to undetectable in some nonlymphoid tissues. Flow cytometry confirms expression from one gene on B cells. Based on Southern blotting and cloning, only two such CD1 genes are detected, located approximately 800 nucleotides apart and in the same transcriptional orientation. The sequence of one gene is nearly identical in six chicken lines. By mapping with a backcross family, this gene could not be separated from the chicken MHC on chromosome 16. Mining the draft chicken genome sequence shows that chicken has only these two CD1 genes located approximately 50 kb from the classical class I genes. The unexpected location of these genes in the chicken MHC suggests the CD1 system was present in the primordial MHC and is thus approximately 600 million years old. Abstract
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Wong GK-S, Liu B, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yang X, Zhang Z, Meng Q, Zhou J, Li D, Zhang J, et al
(2004). A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Nature
A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This map is based on a comparison of the sequences of three domestic chicken breeds (a broiler, a layer and a Chinese silkie) with that of their wild ancestor, red jungle fowl. Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% of the variant sites are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about five SNPs per kilobase for almost every possible comparison between red jungle fowl and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--in contrast to the notion that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated before domestication, and there is little evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales greater than 100 kilobases. Abstract
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Rogers S, Shaw I, Ross N, Nair V, Rothwell L, Kaufman J, Kaiser P
(2003). Analysis of part of the chicken Rfp-Y region reveals two novel lectin genes, the first complete genomic sequence of a class I alpha-chain gene, a truncated class II beta-chain gene, and a large CR1 repeat. Immunogenetics
Analysis of part of the chicken Rfp-Y region reveals two novel lectin genes, the first complete genomic sequence of a class I alpha-chain gene, a truncated class II beta-chain gene, and a large CR1 repeat.
The Rfp-Y region lies on the same microchromosome as the B-F/B-L region of the B complex, yet in contrast to the latter it is poorly characterised. To date it has been shown to contain at least two class I alpha-chain ( Y-F) genes, a class II B-chain gene and a C-type lectin-like gene. We describe the sequencing and analysis of some 20 kb of the Rfp-Y region, and identify several new genes. These include two novel C-type lectin-like genes ( Y-Lec1 and Y-Lec2) that differ strongly from the previously described C-type lectin-like gene found in the Rfp-Y region. We describe a complete genomic sequence of a class I alpha-chain ( Y-F) gene and its promoter from the Rfp-Y region. The predicted cDNA from this gene has high homology to the previously reported Y-F cDNAs. The promoter contains an altered enhancer a element. This portion of the Rfp-Y region also contains a truncated class II B-chain ( Y-LB) gene, as well as a large chicken repeat 1 (CR1) element. Abstract
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Rogers S, Wong S (2003). C-type lectin and lectin-like receptors in the immune system. In Wong S, Arsequell G (Eds.) Immunobiology of Carbohydrates, Landes Bioscience, 101-118.