Publications by year
Trissi N, Troczka BJ, Ozsanlav-Harris L, Singh KS, Mallott M, Aishwarya V, O'Reilly A, Bass C, Wilding CS
(2023). Differential regulation of the Tor gene homolog drives the red/green pigmentation phenotype in the aphid Myzuspersicae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol
Differential regulation of the Tor gene homolog drives the red/green pigmentation phenotype in the aphid Myzuspersicae.
In some aphid species, intraspecific variation in body colour is caused by differential carotenoid content: whilst green aphids contain only yellow carotenoids (β-, γ-, and β,γ-carotenes), red aphids additionally possess red carotenoids (torulene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene). Unusually, within animals who typically obtain carotenoids from their diet, ancestral horizontal gene transfer of carotenoid biosynthetic genes from fungi (followed by gene duplication), have imbued aphids with the intrinsic gene repertoire necessary to biosynthesise carotenoids. In the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum a lycopene (phytoene) desaturase gene (Tor) underpins the red/green phenotype, with this locus present in heterozygous form in red individuals but absent in green aphids, resulting in them being unable to convert lycopene into the red compounds 3,4-didehydrolycopene and torulene. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, separated from the pea aphid for ≈45MY also exists as distinct colour variable morphs, with both red and green individuals present. Here, we examined genomic data for both red and green morphs of M. persicae and identified an enlarged (compared to A. pisum) repertoire of 16 carotenoid biosynthetic genes (11 carotenoid desaturases and five carotenoid cyclase/synthase genes). From these, we identify the homolog of A. pisum Tor (here called carotene desaturase 2 or CDE-2) and show through 3D modelling that this homolog can accommodate the torulene precursor lycopene and, through RNA knockdown feeding experiments, demonstrate that disabling CDE-2 expression in red M. persicae clones results in green-coloured offspring. Unlike in A. pisum, we show that functional CDE-2 is present in the genomes of both red and green aphids. However, expression differences between the two colour morphs (350-700 fold CDE-2 overexpression in red clones), potentially driven by variants identified in upstream putative regulatory elements, underpin this phenotype. Thus, whilst aphids have a common origin of their carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, two aphid species separated for over 40MY have evolved very different drivers of intraspecific colour variation. Abstract
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Richardson E, Homem RA, Troczka BJ, George CH, Ebbinghaus-Kintscher U, Williamson MS, Nauen R, Davies TE
(2022). Diamide insecticide resistance in transgenic Drosophila and Sf9-cells expressing a full-length diamondback moth ryanodine receptor carrying an I4790M mutation. Pest Management Science
Diamide insecticide resistance in transgenic Drosophila and Sf9-cells expressing a full-length diamondback moth ryanodine receptor carrying an I4790M mutation
BACKGROUND: Resistance to diamide insecticides in Lepidoptera is known to be caused primarily by amino acid changes on the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Recently, two new target site mutations, G4946V and I4790M, have emerged in populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as in other lepidopteran species, and both mutations have been shown empirically to decrease diamide efficacy. Here, we quantify the impact of the I4790M mutation on diamide activation of the receptor, as compared to alterations at the G4946 locus. RESULTS: I4790M when introduced into P. xylostella RyR expressed in an insect-derived Sf9 cell line was found to mediate just a ten-fold reduction in chlorantraniliprole efficacy (compared to 104- and 146-fold reductions for the G4946E and G4946V variants, respectively), whilst in the field its presence is associated with a ≥150-fold reduction. I4790M-mediated resistance to flubendiamide was estimated to be >24-fold. When the entire coding sequence of P. xylostella RyR was integrated into Drosophila melanogaster, the I4790M variant conferred ~4.4-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole and 22-fold resistance to flubendiamide in the 3rd instar larvae, confirming that it imparts only a moderate level of resistance to diamide insecticides. Although the I4790M substitution appears to bear no fitness costs in terms of the flies' reproductive capacity, when assessed in a noncompetitive environment, it does, however, have potentially major impacts on mobility at both the larval and adult stages. CONCLUSIONS: I4790M imparts only a moderate level of resistance to diamide insecticides and potentially confers significant fitness costs to the insect. Abstract
Pym A, Umina PA, Reidy-Crofts J, Troczka BJ, Matthews A, Gardner J, Hunt BJ, van Rooyen AR, Edwards OR, Bass C, et al
(2022). Overexpression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and cytochrome P450 enzymes confers resistance to sulfoxaflor in field populations of the aphid, Myzus persicae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol
Overexpression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and cytochrome P450 enzymes confers resistance to sulfoxaflor in field populations of the aphid, Myzus persicae.
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a highly damaging, globally distributed crop pest that has evolved multiple resistance to numerous insecticides. It is thus imperative that insecticides that are not strongly compromised by pre-existing resistance are carefully managed to maximise their effective life span. Sulfoxaflor is a sulfoximine insecticide that retains efficacy against M. persicae clones that exhibit resistance to older insecticides. In the current study we monitored the efficacy of sulfoxaflor against M. persicae populations collected in Western Australia, following reports of control failures in this region. We identified clones with low (4-23-fold across multiple independent bioassay experiments), but significant, levels of resistance to sulfoxaflor compared with a reference susceptible clone. Furthermore, we demonstrate that sulfoxaflor resistance can persist after many months of culturing in the laboratory in the absence of insecticide exposure. Resistance was not conferred by known mechanisms of resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides, that act on the same target-site as sulfoxaflor, i.e. the R81T mutation or overexpresssion of the P450 gene CYP6CY3. Rather, transcriptome profiling of multiple resistant and susceptible clones identified the P450 CYP380C40 and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT344P2 as highly overexpressed (21-76-fold and 6-33-fold respectively) in the resistant clones. Transgenic expression of these genes demonstrated that they confer, low, but significant, levels of resistance to sulfoxaflor in vivo. Taken together, our data reveal the presence of low-level resistance to sulfoxaflor in M. persicae populations in Australia and uncover two novel mechanisms conferring resistance to this compound. The findings and tools generated in this study provide a platform for the development of strategies that aim to slow, prevent or overcome the evolution of more potent resistance to sulfoxaflor. Abstract
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Duarte A, Pym A, Garrood WT, Troczka BJ, Zimmer CT, Davies TGE, Nauen R, O’Reilly AO, Bass C
(2022). P450 gene duplication and divergence led to the evolution of dual novel functions and insecticide cross-resistance in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. PLOS Genetics
P450 gene duplication and divergence led to the evolution of dual novel functions and insecticide cross-resistance in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens
The sustainable control of many highly damaging insect crop pests and disease vectors is threatened by the evolution of insecticide resistance. As a consequence, strategies have been developed that aim to prevent or delay resistance development by rotating or mixing insecticides with different modes of action (MoA). However, these approaches can be compromised by the emergence of mechanisms that confer cross-resistance to insecticides with different MoA. Despite the applied importance of cross-resistance, its evolutionary underpinnings remain poorly understood. Here we reveal how a single gene evolved the capacity to detoxify two structurally unrelated insecticides with different MoA. Using transgenic approaches we demonstrate that a specific variant of the cytochrome P450 CYP6ER1, previously shown to confer resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, N. lugens, also confers cross-resistance to the phenylpyrazole ethiprole. CYP6ER1 is duplicated in resistant strains, and we show that while the acquisition of mutations in two encoded substrate recognition sites (SRS) of one of the parologs led to resistance to imidacloprid, a different set of mutations, outside of known SRS, are primarily responsible for resistance to ethiprole. Epistatic interactions between these mutations and their genetic background suggest that the evolution of dual resistance from the same gene copy involved functional trade-offs in respect to CYP6ER1 catalytic activity for ethiprole versus imidacloprid. Surprisingly, the mutations leading to ethiprole and imidacloprid resistance do not confer the ability to detoxify the insecticide fipronil, another phenylpyrazole with close structural similarity to ethiprole. Taken together, these findings reveal how gene duplication and divergence can lead to the evolution of multiple novel functions from a single gene. From an applied perspective they also demonstrate how cross-resistance to structurally unrelated insecticides can evolve, and illustrate the difficulty in predicting cross-resistance profiles mediated by metabolic mechanisms. Abstract
Reavey CE, Walker AS, Joyce SP, Broom L, Willse A, Ercit K, Poletto M, Barnes ZH, Marubbi T, Troczka BJ, et al (2022). Self-limiting fall armyworm: a new approach in development for sustainable crop protection and resistance management. BMC Biotechnology, 22(1).
Singh KS, Cordeiro EMG, Troczka BJ, Pym A, Mackisack J, Mathers TC, Duarte A, Legeai F, Robin S, Bielza P, et al
(2021). Global patterns in genomic diversity underpinning the evolution of insecticide resistance in the aphid crop pest Myzus persicae. Commun Biol
Global patterns in genomic diversity underpinning the evolution of insecticide resistance in the aphid crop pest Myzus persicae.
The aphid Myzus persicae is a destructive agricultural pest that displays an exceptional ability to develop resistance to both natural and synthetic insecticides. To investigate the evolution of resistance in this species we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly and living panel of >110 fully sequenced globally sampled clonal lines. Our analyses reveal a remarkable diversity of resistance mutations segregating in global populations of M. persicae. We show that the emergence and spread of these mechanisms is influenced by host-plant associations, uncovering the widespread co-option of a host-plant adaptation that also offers resistance against synthetic insecticides. We identify both the repeated evolution of independent resistance mutations at the same locus, and multiple instances of the evolution of novel resistance mechanisms against key insecticides. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the genomic responses of global insect populations to strong selective forces, and hold practical relevance for the control of pests and parasites. Abstract
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Troczka BJ, Singh KS, Zimmer CT, Vontas J, Nauen R, Hayward A, Bass C
(2021). Molecular innovations underlying resistance to nicotine and neonicotinoids in the aphid Myzus persicae. Pest Manag Sci
Molecular innovations underlying resistance to nicotine and neonicotinoids in the aphid Myzus persicae.
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a globally distributed highly damaging crop pest. This species has demonstrated an exceptional ability to evolve resistance to both synthetic insecticides used for control, and natural insecticides produced by certain plants as a chemical defense against insect attack. Here we review work characterizing the evolution of resistance in M. persicae to the natural insecticide nicotine and the structurally related class of synthetic neonicotinoid insecticides. We outline how research on this topic has provided insights into long-standing questions of both evolutionary and applied importance. These include questions pertaining to the origins of novel traits, the number and nature of mutational events or 'adaptive steps' underlying the evolution of new phenotypes, and whether host plant adaptations can be co-opted to confer resistance to synthetic insecticides. Finally, research on the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in M. persicae has generated several outstanding questions on the genetic architecture of resistance to both natural and synthetic xenobiotics, and we conclude by identifying key knowledge gaps for future research. © 2021 the Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. Abstract
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Panini M, Chiesa O, Troczka BJ, Mallott M, Manicardi GC, Cassanelli S, Cominelli F, Hayward A, Mazzoni E, Bass C, et al
(2021). Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis unmasks recessive insecticide resistance in the aphid Myzus persicae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis unmasks recessive insecticide resistance in the aphid Myzus persicae.
The evolution of resistance to insecticides threatens the sustainable control of many of the world's most damaging insect crop pests and disease vectors. To effectively combat resistance, it is important to understand its underlying genetic architecture, including the type and number of genetic variants affecting resistance and their interactions with each other and the environment. While significant progress has been made in characterizing the individual genes or mutations leading to resistance, our understanding of how genetic variants interact to influence its phenotypic expression remains poor. Here, we uncover a mechanism of insecticide resistance resulting from transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis of a genetically dominant but insecticide-susceptible allele that enables the adaptive potential of a previously unavailable recessive resistance allele to be unlocked. Specifically, we identify clones of the aphid pest Myzus persicae that carry a resistant allele of the essential voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene with the recessive M918T and L1014F resistance mutations, in combination with an allele lacking these mutations but carrying a Mutator-like element transposon insertion that disrupts the coding sequence of the VGSC. This results in the down-regulation of the dominant susceptible allele and monoallelic expression of the recessive resistant allele, rendering the clones resistant to the insecticide bifenthrin. These findings are a powerful example of how transposable elements can provide a source of evolutionary potential that can be revealed by environmental and genetic perturbation, with applied implications for the control of highly damaging insect pests. Abstract
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Reid RJ, Troczka BJ, Kor L, Randall E, Williamson MS, Field LM, Nauen R, Bass C, Davies TGE
(2020). Assessing the acute toxicity of insecticides to the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Assessing the acute toxicity of insecticides to the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax)
The buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris audax is an important pollinator within both landscape ecosystems and agricultural crops. During their lifetime bumblebees are regularly challenged by various environmental stressors including insecticides. Historically the honey bee (Apis mellifera spp.) has been used as an ‘indicator’ species for ‘standard’ ecotoxicological testing, but it has been suggested that it is not always a good proxy for other eusocial or solitary bees. To investigate this, the susceptibility of B. terrestris to selected pesticides within the neonicotinoid, pyrethroid and organophosphate classes was examined using acute insecticide bioassays. Acute oral and topical LD50 values for B. terrestris against these insecticides were broadly consistent with published results for A. mellifera. For the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid was highly toxic, but thiacloprid and acetamiprid were practically non-toxic. For pyrethroids, deltamethrin was highly toxic, but tau-fluvalinate only slightly toxic. For the organophosphates, chlorpyrifos was highly toxic, but coumaphos practically non-toxic. Bioassays using insecticides with common synergists enhanced the sensitivity of B. terrestris to several insecticides, suggesting detoxification enzymes may provide a level of protection against these compounds. The sensitivity of B. terrestris to compounds within three different insecticide classes is similar to that reported for honey bees, with marked variation in sensitivity to different insecticides within the same insecticide class observed in both species. This finding highlights the need to consider each compound within an insecticide class in isolation rather than extrapolating between different insecticides in the same class or sharing the same mode of action. Abstract
Richardson EB, Troczka BJ, Gutbrod O, Davies TGE, Nauen R
(2020). Diamide resistance: 10 years of lessons from lepidopteran pests. Journal of Pest Science
Diamide resistance: 10 years of lessons from lepidopteran pests
Diamide insecticides selectively acting on insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) were launched to the market more than 10 years ago, particularly targeted for the control of lepidopteran pest species in diverse agronomic and horticultural cropping systems. They are now globally registered in many countries and provide reliable control levels in most settings. However, their frequent application, due to alternative mode of action chemistries often not providing sufficient levels of control, has resulted in the selection of diamide resistance in some of the world’s most destructive lepidopteran species, including populations of diamondback moth, tomato leafminer, rice stem borer and more recently beet armyworm. High levels of diamide resistance, compromising diamide efficacy at recommended field rates, has been shown to be conferred by RyR target-site mutations affecting diamide binding. The present work reviews the global status of diamide insecticide resistance in lepidopteran pests, with special reference to RyR target-site alterations. Furthermore, we discuss principles enabling the prediction of the impact and spread of diamide resistance, based on population genetics and associated fitness costs as influenced by the known target-site mutations recently described. In this context, we reiterate calls by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee to implement effective diamide insecticide resistance management by following a three-step strategy of resistance identification, tracking and prediction according to the protocols discussed in this article. Abstract
McLeman A, Troczka BJ, Homem RA, Duarte A, Zimmer C, Garrood WT, Pym A, Beadle K, Reid RJ, Douris V, et al
(2020). Fly-Tox: a panel of transgenic flies expressing pest and pollinator cytochrome P450s. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Fly-Tox: a panel of transgenic flies expressing pest and pollinator cytochrome P450s
There is an on-going need to develop new insecticides that are not compromised by resistance and that have improved environmental profiles. However, the cost of developing novel compounds has increased significantly over the last two decades. This is in part due to increased regulatory requirements, including the need to screen both pest and pollinator insect species to ensure that pre-existing resistance will not hamper the efficacy of a new insecticide via cross-resistance, or adversely affect non-target insect species. To add to this problem the collection and maintenance of toxicologically relevant pest and pollinator species and strains is costly and often difficult. Here we present Fly-Tox, a panel of publicly available transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines each containing one or more pest or pollinator P450 genes that have been previously shown to metabolise insecticides. We describe the range of ways these tools can be used, including in predictive screens to avoid pre-existing cross-resistance, to identify potential resistance-breaking inhibitors, in the initial assessment of potential insecticide toxicity to bee pollinators, and identifying harmful pesticide-pesticide interactions. Abstract
Singh KS, Troczka BJ, Duarte A, Balabanidou V, Trissi N, Carabajal Paladino LZ, Nguyen P, Zimmer CT, Papapostolou KM, Randall E, et al
(2020). The genetic architecture of a host shift: an adaptive walk protected an aphid and its endosymbiont from plant chemical defenses. Science Advances
The genetic architecture of a host shift: an adaptive walk protected an aphid and its endosymbiont from plant chemical defenses
A complex series of mutational events protected a mutualistic symbiosis during the shift of an insect to a toxic host plant. Abstract
Mallott M, Hamm S, Troczka BJ, Randall E, Pym A, Grant C, Baxter S, Vogel H, Shelton AM, Field LM, et al
(2019). A flavin-dependent monooxgenase confers resistance to chlorantraniliprole in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Insect Biochem Mol Biol
A flavin-dependent monooxgenase confers resistance to chlorantraniliprole in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a damaging pest of cruciferous crops, and has evolved resistance to many of the insecticides used for control, including members of the diamide class. Previous work on the molecular basis of resistance to diamides has documented mutations in the target-site, the ryanodine receptor, in resistant populations of P. xylostella worldwide. In contrast the role of metabolic resistance to this insecticide class is significantly less clear. Here we show that overexpression of a flavin-dependent monooxgenase (FMO) confers resistance to the diamide chlorantraniliprole in P. xylostella. Transcriptome profiling of diamide resistant strains, with and without target-site resistance, revealed constitutive over-expression of several transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes compared to susceptible strains. Two of these, CYP6BG1, and PxFMO2 were particularly highly overexpressed (33,000 and 14,700-fold, respectively) in a resistant strain (HAW) lacking target-site resistance. After 17 generations without diamide selection the resistance of the HAW strain fell by 52-fold and the expression of PxFMO2 by > 1300-fold, however, the expression of CYP6BG1 declined by only 3-fold. Generation of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster expressing these genes demonstrated that PxFMO2, but not CYP6BG1, confers resistance in vivo. Overexpression of PxFMO2 in the HAW strain is associated with mutations, including a putative transposable element insertion, in the promoter of this gene. These enhance the expression of a reporter gene when expressed in a lepidopteran cell line suggesting they are, at least in part, responsible for the overexpression of PxFMO2 in the resistant strain. Our results provide new evidence that insect FMOs can be recruited to provide resistance to synthetic insecticides. Abstract
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Singh KS, Troczka BJ, Beadle K, Field LM, Davies TGE, Williamson MS, Nauen R, Bass C
(2019). Extension of Partial Gene Transcripts by Iterative Mapping of RNA-Seq Raw Reads. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Extension of Partial Gene Transcripts by Iterative Mapping of RNA-Seq Raw Reads
Many non-model organisms lack reference genomes and the sequencing and de novo assembly of an organisms transcriptome is an affordable means by which to characterize the coding component of its genome. Despite the advances that have made this possible, assembling a transcriptome without a known reference usually results in a collection of full-length and partial gene transcripts. The downstream analysis of genes represented as partial transcripts then often requires further experimental work in the laboratory in order to obtain full- length sequences. We have explored whether partial transcripts, encoding genes of interest present in de novo assembled transcriptomes of a model and non-model insect species, could be further extended by iterative mapping against the raw transcriptome sequencing reads. Partial sequences encoding cytochrome P450s and carboxyl/cholinesterase were used in this analysis, because they are large multigene families and exhibit significant variation in expression. We present an effective method to improve the contiguity of partial transcripts in silico that, in the absence of a reference genome, may be a quick and cost-effective alternative to their extension by laboratory experimentation. Our approach resulted in the successful extension of incompletely assembled transcripts, often to full length. We experimentally validated these results in silico and using real-time PCR and sequencing. Abstract
Beadle K, Singh KS, Troczka BJ, Randall E, Zaworra M, Zimmer CT, Hayward A, Reid R, Kor L, Kohler M, et al
(2019). Genomic insights into neonicotinoid sensitivity in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis. PLoS Genet
Genomic insights into neonicotinoid sensitivity in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis.
The impact of pesticides on the health of bee pollinators is determined in part by the capacity of bee detoxification systems to convert these compounds to less toxic forms. For example, recent work has shown that cytochrome P450s of the CYP9Q subfamily are critically important in defining the sensitivity of honey bees and bumblebees to pesticides, including neonicotinoid insecticides. However, it is currently unclear if solitary bees have functional equivalents of these enzymes with potentially serious implications in relation to their capacity to metabolise certain insecticides. To address this question, we sequenced the genome of the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, the most abundant and economically important solitary bee species in Central Europe. We show that O. bicornis lacks the CYP9Q subfamily of P450s but, despite this, exhibits low acute toxicity to the N-cyanoamidine neonicotinoid thiacloprid. Functional studies revealed that variation in the sensitivity of O. bicornis to N-cyanoamidine and N-nitroguanidine neonicotinoids does not reside in differences in their affinity for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor or speed of cuticular penetration. Rather, a P450 within the CYP9BU subfamily, with recent shared ancestry to the Apidae CYP9Q subfamily, metabolises thiacloprid in vitro and confers tolerance in vivo. Our data reveal conserved detoxification pathways in model solitary and eusocial bees despite key differences in the evolution of specific pesticide-metabolising enzymes in the two species groups. The discovery that P450 enzymes of solitary bees can act as metabolic defence systems against certain pesticides can be leveraged to avoid negative pesticide impacts on these important pollinators. Abstract
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Troczka BJ, Homem RA, Reid R, Beadle K, Kohler M, Zaworra M, Field LM, Williamson MS, Nauen R, Bass C, et al
(2019). Identification and functional characterisation of a novel N-cyanoamidine neonicotinoid metabolising cytochrome P450, CYP9Q6, from the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Insect Biochem Mol Biol
Identification and functional characterisation of a novel N-cyanoamidine neonicotinoid metabolising cytochrome P450, CYP9Q6, from the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris.
Recent work has shown that two bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) cytochrome P450s of the CYP9Q subfamily, CYP9Q4 and CYP9Q5, are important biochemical determinants of sensitivity to neonicotinoid insecticides. Here, we report the characterisation of a third P450 gene CYP9Q6, previously mis-annotated in the genome of B. terrestris, encoding an enzyme that metabolises the N-cyanoamidine neonicotinoids thiacloprid and acetamiprid with high efficiency. The genomic location and complete ORF of CYP9Q6 was corroborated by PCR and its metabolic activity characterised in vitro by expression in an insect cell line. CYP9Q6 metabolises both thiacloprid and acetamiprid more rapidly than the previously reported CYP9Q4 and CYP9Q5. We further demonstrate a direct, in vivo correlation between the expression of the CYP9Q6 enzyme in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster and an increased tolerance to thiacloprid and acetamiprid. We conclude that CYP9Q6 is an efficient metaboliser of N-cyanoamidine neonicotinoids and likely plays a key role in the high tolerance of B. terrestris to these insecticides. Abstract
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Troczka BJ, Richardson E, Homem RA, Davies TGE
(2018). An analysis of variability in genome organisation of intracellular calcium release channels across insect orders. Gene
An analysis of variability in genome organisation of intracellular calcium release channels across insect orders
Using publicly available genomic data, combined with RT-PCR validation, we explore structural genomic variation for two major ion channels across insect classes. We have manually curated ryanodine receptor (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) ORFs and their corresponding genomic structures from 26 different insects covering major insect orders. We found that, despite high protein identity for both RyRs (>75%) and IP3Rs (~67%), the overall complexity of the gene structure varies greatly between different insect orders with the simplest genes (fewest introns) found in Diptera and the most complex in Lepidoptera. Analysis of intron conservation patterns indicated that the majority of conserved introns are found close to the 5′ end of the channels and in RyR around the highly conserved mutually exclusive splice site. of the two channels the IP3Rs appear to have a less well conserved organisation with a greater overall number of unique introns seen between insect orders. We experimentally validated two of the manually curated ORFs for IP3Rs and confirmed an atypical (3799aa) IP3R receptor in Myzus persicae, which is approximately 1000 amino acids larger than previously reported for IP3Rs. Abstract
Manjon C, Troczka B, Zaworra M, Beadle K, Randall E, Hertlein G, Singh K, Zimmer C, Homem R, Lueke B, et al (2018). Unravelling the molecular determinants of bee sensitivity to neonicotinoid insecticides. Current Biology, 28, 1-7.
Troczka BJ, Williamson MS, Field LM, Davies TGE
(2017). Rapid selection for resistance to diamide insecticides in Plutella xylostella via specific amino acid polymorphisms in the ryanodine receptor. NeuroToxicology
Rapid selection for resistance to diamide insecticides in Plutella xylostella via specific amino acid polymorphisms in the ryanodine receptor
Diamide insecticides, such as flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole, are a new class of insecticide with a novel mode of action, selectively activating the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR). They are particularly active against lepidopteran pests of cruciferous vegetable crops, including the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. However, within a relatively short period following their commercialisation, a comparatively large number of control failures have been reported in the field. In this review we summarise the current body of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of diamide resistance in P. xylostella. Resistant phenotypes collected from different countries can often be linked to specific target-site mutation(s) in the ryanodine receptors’ transmembrane domain. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance have also been proposed. Rapid resistance development is probably a consequence of over-reliance on this one class of chemistry for diamondback moth control. Abstract
Roditakis E, Steinbach D, Moritz G, Vasakis E, Stavrakaki M, Ilias A, García-Vidal L, Martínez-Aguirre MDR, Bielza P, Morou E, et al
(2017). Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Insect Biochem Mol Biol
Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).
Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance management strategies is strongly advised to delay the further spread of resistance. Abstract
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Troczka BJ, Williams AJ, Williamson MS, Field LM, Luëmmen P, Davies TGE
(2015). Stable expression and functional characterisation of the diamondback moth ryanodine receptor G4946E variant conferring resistance to diamide insecticides. Scientific Reports
Stable expression and functional characterisation of the diamondback moth ryanodine receptor G4946E variant conferring resistance to diamide insecticides
Diamides, such as flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole, belong to a new chemical class of insecticides that act as conformation-sensitive activators of insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Both compounds are registered for use against lepidopteran species such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a notorious global pest of cruciferous crops. Recently acquired resistance to diamide insecticides in this species is thought to be due to a target-site mutation conferring an amino acid substitution (G4946E), located within the trans-membrane domain of the RyR, though the exact role of this mutation has not yet been fully determined. To address this we have cloned a full-length cDNA encoding the P. xylostella RyR and established clonal Sf9 cell lines stably expressing either the wildtype RyR or the G4946E variant, in order to test the sensitivity to flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole on the recombinant receptor. We report that the efficacy of both diamides was dramatically reduced in clonal Sf9 cells stably expressing the G4946E modified RyR, providing clear functional evidence that the G4946E RyR mutation impairs diamide insecticide binding. Abstract