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Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

Professor Callum Roberts

Professor Callum Roberts

Professor of Marine Conservation

 The Farmhouse 


The Farmhouse, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK


I am Professor of Marine Conservation in the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University of Exeter's Cornwall campus. My research focuses on threats to marine ecosystems and species and on finding the means to protect them. My main interests include documenting the impacts of fishing on marine life, both historic and modern, and exploring the theory and practical effectiveness of marine protected areas for conservation and fisheries management.

For the last few decades I have used science to make the case for stronger protection for marine life at both national and international levels. My research group designed half a million square kilometres of marine protection in the North Atlantic that was established by OSPAR in 2010. We also provided the scientific underpinning for a new ocean protection target – 30% marine protected areas by 2030 – which is gaining widespread support as a follow on to the UN 10% by 2020 target. 

I am also an author. The Unnatural History of the Sea (Island Press) charts the effects of 1000 years of exploitation on ocean life. A second book, Ocean of life: how our seas are changing (Penguin Books), shows that the oceans are changing faster and in more ways than at any time in human history, and sets out a series of reforms that could lead to a more sustainable future. I have also written a book with the award winning photographer Alex Mustard, Secrets of the Seas (Bloomsbury), which through his glorious images showcases some of the most beautiful wildlife and places in the sea. My latest book, Reef Life (Profile Books), is on the past and precarious future of the world’s richest marine ecosystem, coral reefs.

I was chief scientific advisor for the BBC television’s flagship series Blue Planet II. I work extensively with ocean conservation charities and am Chief Scientific Advisor to BLUE Marine Foundation as well as a Trustee. I am also a WWF UK Ambassador, am on the board of the Nekton Deep Ocean Research Institute, scientific advisor to the Maldives Coral Institute, and advisor to the Pew Bertarelli Global Ocean Legacy Program.


BSc (Hons) Biology, University of York 1983

PhD Coral reef ecology, University of York 1987

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Journal articles

Pérez G, O'Leary BC, Allegri E, Casal G, Cornet CC, de Juan S, Failler P, Fredriksen S, Fonseca C, Furlan E, et al (2024). A conceptual framework to help choose appropriate blue nature-based solutions. J Environ Manage, 352 Abstract.  Author URL.
Ayres KA, Lara-Lizardi F, Roberts CM, Pisco-Limones W, Klimley P, Jorgensen SJ, Galván-Magaña F, Hoyos-Padilla M, Ketchum JT (2024). Local diver knowledge reveals decline in scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) at seamounts in the southwestern Gulf of California. Marine Policy, 159 Abstract.
O’Leary BC, Wood LE, Cornet C, Roberts CM, Fonseca C (2024). Practitioner insights on challenges and options for advancing blue Nature-based Solutions. Marine Policy, 163, 106104-106104.
Epstein G, Roberts CM (2023). Does biodiversity-focused protection of the seabed deliver carbon benefits? a UK case study. CONSERVATION LETTERS, 16(1).  Author URL.
O'Leary BC, Fonseca C, Cornet CC, de Vries MB, Degia AK, Failler P, Furlan E, Garrabou J, Gil A, Hawkins JP, et al (2023). Embracing Nature-based Solutions to promote resilient marine and coastal ecosystems. Nature-Based Solutions, 3, 100044-100044.
Fonseca C, Wood LE, Andriamahefazafy M, Casal G, Chaigneau T, Cornet CC, Degia AK, Failler P, Ferraro G, Furlan E, et al (2023). Survey data of public awareness on climate change and the value of marine and coastal ecosystems. Data in Brief, 47
Rogers AD, Appeltans W, Assis J, Ballance LT, Cury P, Duarte C, Favoretto F, Hynes LA, Kumagai JA, Lovelock CE, et al (2022). Discovering marine biodiversity in the 21st century. , 93, 23-115.
Epstein G, Roberts CM (2022). Identifying priority areas to manage mobile bottom fishing on seabed carbon in the UK. PLOS Climate, 1(9).
Laffoley D, Baxter JM, Amon DJ, Claudet J, Downs CA, Earle SA, Gjerde KM, Hall-Spencer JM, Koldewey HJ, Levin LA, et al (2022). The forgotten ocean: Why COP26 must call for vastly greater ambition and urgency to address ocean change. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 32(1), 217-228. Abstract.
Epstein G, Middelburg JJ, Hawkins JP, Norris CR, Roberts CM (2022). The impact of mobile demersal fishing on carbon storage in seabed sediments. Global Change Biology, 28(9), 2875-2894. Abstract.
Duarte CM, Agusti S, Barbier E, Britten GL, Castilla JC, Gattuso J-P, Fulweiler RW, Hughes TP, Knowlton N, Lovelock CE, et al (2021). Author Correction: Rebuilding marine life. Nature, 593(7857), e1-e2.
Grorud-Colvert K, Sullivan-Stack J, Roberts C, Constant V, Horta E Costa B, Pike EP, Kingston N, Laffoley D, Sala E, Claudet J, et al (2021). The MPA Guide: a framework to achieve global goals for the ocean. Science, 373(6560).
Sumaila UR, Skerritt DJ, Schuhbauer A, Villasante S, Cisneros-Montemayor AM, Sinan H, Burnside D, Abdallah PR, Abe K, Addo KA, et al (2021). WTO must ban harmful fisheries subsidies. Science, 374(6567).  Author URL.
Roberts CM, O'Leary BC, Hawkins JP (2020). Climate change mitigation and nature conservation both require higher protected area targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 375(1794). Abstract.
Laffoley D, Baxter JM, Amon DJ, Currie DEJ, Downs CA, Hall-Spencer JM, Harden-Davies H, Page R, Reid CP, Roberts CM, et al (2020). Eight urgent, fundamental and simultaneous steps needed to restore ocean health, and the consequences for humanity and the planet of inaction or delay. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 30(1), 194-208. Abstract.
Stewart BD, Howarth LM, Wood H, Whiteside K, Carney W, Crimmins E, O'Leary BC, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2020). Marine Conservation Begins at Home: How a Local Community and Protection of a Small Bay Sent Waves of Change Around the UK and Beyond. FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE, 7  Author URL.
O'Leary BC, Hoppit G, Townley A, Allen HL, McIntyre CJ, Roberts CM (2020). Options for managing human threats to high seas biodiversity. Ocean & Coastal Management, 187, 105110-105110.
Murray A, Garrud E, Ender I, Lee-Brooks K, Atkins R, Lynam R, Arnold K, Roberts C, Hawkins J, Stevens G, et al (2020). Protecting the million-dollar mantas; creating an evidencebased code of conduct for manta ray tourism interactions. JOURNAL OF ECOTOURISM, 19(2), 132-147.  Author URL.
Duarte CM, Agusti S, Barbier E, Britten GL, Castilla JC, Gattuso J-P, Fulweiler RW, Hughes TP, Knowlton N, Lovelock CE, et al (2020). Rebuilding marine life. Nature, 580(7801), 39-51.
Burns P, Hawkins J, Roberts C (2020). Reconstructing the history of ocean wildlife around Ascension Island. AQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, 30(6), 1220-1237.  Author URL.
Dyson F, Nelson A, Savage-Smith E, Pettifor A, Roberts C, Serageldin I, Ihekweazu C (2019). Books for our time: seven classics that speak to us now. Nature, 576(7787), 374-378.
O’Leary BC, Fieldhouse P, McClean CJ, Ford AES, Burns P, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2019). Evidence gaps and biodiversity threats facing the marine environment of the United Kingdom’s Overseas Territories. Biodiversity and Conservation, 28(2), 363-383. Abstract.
Johnson DE, Rees SE, Diz D, Jones PJS, Roberts C, Froján CB (2019). Securing effective and equitable coverage of marine protected areas: the UK's progress towards achieving Convention on Biological Diversity commitments and lessons learned for the way forward. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 29(S2), 181-194.
Roberts C (2019). There were walls of fish, so many you could hardly see the corals. Biologist, 66(3), 12-17.
O'Leary BC, Ban NC, Fernandez M, Friedlander AM, García-Borboroglu P, Golbuu Y, Guidetti P, Harris JM, Hawkins JP, Langlois T, et al (2018). Addressing Criticisms of Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas. BioScience, 68(5), 359-370. Abstract.
Sala E, Lubchenco J, Grorud-Colvert K, Novelli C, Roberts C, Sumaila UR (2018). Assessing real progress towards effective ocean protection. Marine Policy, 91, 11-13.
Stevens GMW, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2018). Courtship and mating behaviour of manta rays Mobula alfredi and M. birostris in the Maldives. Journal of Fish Biology, 93(2), 344-359. Abstract.
O'Leary BC, Roberts CM (2018). Ecological connectivity across ocean depths: Implications for protected area design. Global Ecology and Conservation, 15, e00431-e00431.
López-Angarita J, Tilley A, Hawkins JP, Pedraza C, Roberts CM (2018). Land use patterns and influences of protected areas on mangroves of the eastern tropical Pacific. Biological Conservation, 227, 82-91. Abstract.
López-Angarita J, Tilley A, Díaz JM, Hawkins JP, Cagua EF, Roberts CM (2018). Winners and losers in area-based management of a small-scale fishery in the Colombian Pacific. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5(FEB). Abstract.
Plumeridge AA, Roberts CM (2017). Conservation targets in marine protected area management suffer from shifting baseline syndrome: a case study on the Dogger Bank. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 116(1-2), 395-404.
Roberts CM, O'Leary BC, McCauley DJ, Cury PM, Duarte CM, Lubchenco J, Pauly D, Sáenz-Arroyo A, Sumaila UR, Wilson RW, et al (2017). Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 114(24), 6167-6175. Abstract.  Author URL.
O'Leary BC, Winther-Janson M, Bainbridge JM, Aitken J, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2017). Reply to White et al.: Providing Perspective on Ocean Conservation Targets. Conservation Letters, 10(3), 375-376. Abstract.
O'Leary BC, Roberts CM (2017). The Structuring Role of Marine Life in Open Ocean Habitat: Importance to International Policy. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4
Howarth LM, Dubois P, Gratton P, Judge M, Christie B, Waggitt JJ, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Stewart BD (2017). Trade-offs in marine protection: Multispecies interactions within a community-led temperate marine reserve. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(1), 263-276. Abstract.
O'Leary BC, Winther-Janson M, Bainbridge JM, Aitken J, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2016). Effective Coverage Targets for Ocean Protection. Conservation Letters, 9(6), 398-404. Abstract.
Bégin C, Schelten CK, Nugues MM, Hawkins J, Roberts C, Côté IM (2016). Effects of Protection and Sediment Stress on Coral Reefs in Saint Lucia. PLoS One, 11(2). Abstract.  Author URL.
López-Angarita J, Roberts CM, Tilley A, Hawkins JP, Cooke RG (2016). Mangroves and people: Lessons from a history of use and abuse in four Latin American countries. Forest Ecology and Management, 368, 151-162. Abstract.
Hawkins JP, O'Leary BC, Bassett N, Peters H, Rakowski S, Reeve G, Roberts CM (2016). Public awareness and attitudes towards marine protection in the United Kingdom. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 111(1-2), 231-236. Abstract.
Peters H, O'Leary BC, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2016). The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale. Global Ecology and Conservation, 7, 201-213. Abstract.
Howarth LM, Roberts CM, Hawkins JP, Steadman DJ, Beukers-Stewart BD (2015). Effects of ecosystem protection on scallop populations within a community-led temperate marine reserve. Marine Biology, 162(4), 823-840. Abstract.
Thurstan RH, McClenachan L, Crowder LB, Drew JA, Kittinger JN, Levin PS, Roberts CM, Pandolfi JM (2015). Filling historical data gaps to foster solutions in marine conservation. Ocean and Coastal Management, 115, 31-40. Abstract.
Peters H, O'Leary BC, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2015). Identifying species at extinction risk using global models of anthropogenic impact. Global Change Biology, 21(2), 618-628. Abstract.
Howarth LM, Pickup SE, Evans LE, Cross TJ, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Stewart BD (2015). Sessile and mobile components of a benthic ecosystem display mixed trends within a temperate marine reserve. Marine Environmental Research, 107, 8-23. Abstract.
Richards K, O'Leary BC, Roberts CM, Ormond R, Gore M, Hawkins JP (2015). Sharks and people: Insight into the global practices of tourism operators and their attitudes to Shark behaviour. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 91(1), 200-210. Abstract.
Sumaila UR, Lam VWY, Miller DD, Teh L, Watson RA, Zeller D, Cheung WWL, Côté IM, Rogers AD, Roberts C, et al (2015). Winners and losers in a world where the high seas is closed to fishing. Scientific Reports, 5(1).
Barrett JH, Locker AM, Roberts CM (2015). ‘Dark Age Economics’ revisited: the English fish bone evidence AD 600-1600. Antiquity, 78(301), 618-636.
Thurstan RH, Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2014). Origins of the bottom trawling controversy in the British Isles: 19th century witness testimonies reveal evidence of early fishery declines. Fish and Fisheries, 15(3), 506-522. Abstract.
Roberts C, Finkbeiner A, Comfort N, Farmelo G, Gong L, Draaisma D, Catley-Carlson M, Whiteman G, Abdulla S, Baker J, et al (2014). Summer books. Nature, 511(7508), 152-154.
Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell R, Brooks TM, Gittleman JL, Joppa LN, Raven PH, Roberts CM, Sexton JO (2014). The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science, 344(6187). Abstract.
Singleton RL, Roberts CM (2014). The contribution of very large marine protected areas to marine conservation: Giant leaps or smoke and mirrors?. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 87(1), 7-10. Abstract.
Thurstan RH, Roberts CM (2014). The past and future of fish consumption: can supplies meet healthy eating recommendations?. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 89(1-2), 5-11. Abstract.
Howarth LM, Roberts CM, Thurstan RH, Stewart BD (2014). The unintended consequences of simplifying the sea: Making the case for complexity. Fish and Fisheries, 15(4), 690-711. Abstract.
Peters H, O'Leary BC, Hawkins JP, Carpenter KE, Roberts CM (2013). Conus: First comprehensive conservation red list assessment of a marine gastropod mollusc genus. PLoS ONE, 8(12). Abstract.
Roberts C (2013). Nature writing: Cetacean subtleties. Nature, 498(7452).
Thurstan RH, Hawkins JP, Raby L, Roberts CM (2013). Oyster (Ostrea edulis) extirpation and ecosystem transformation in the Firth of Forth, Scotland. Journal for Nature Conservation, 21(5), 253-261. Abstract.
Thurstan RH, Hawkins JP, Neves L, Roberts CM (2012). Are marine reserves and non-consumptive activities compatible? a global analysis of marine reserve regulations. Marine Policy, 36(5), 1096-1104. Abstract.
Veitch L, Dulvy NK, Koldewey H, Lieberman S, Pauly D, Roberts CM, Rogers AD, Baillie JEM (2012). Avoiding Empty Ocean Commitments at Rio+20. Science, 336(6087), 1383-1385.
Fox HE, Mascia MB, Basurto X, Costa A, Glew L, Heinemann D, Karrer LB, Lester SE, Lombana AV, Pomeroy RS, et al (2012). Reexamining the science of marine protected areas: Linking knowledge to action. Conservation Letters, 5(1), 1-10. Abstract.
O'Leary BC, Smart JCR, Neale FC, Hawkins JP, Newman S, Milman AC, Datta S, Roberts CM (2012). Response to Cook et al. comment on " Fisheries Mismanagement". Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(10), 2267-2271.
Hastings J, Thomas S, Burgener V, Gjerde K, Laffoley D, Salm R, McCook L, Pet-Soede L, Eichbaum WM, Bottema M, et al (2012). Safeguarding the blue planet: Six strategies for accelerating ocean protection. Parks, 18(1), 9-22. Abstract.
O'Leary BC, Brown RL, Johnson DE, von Nordheim H, Ardron J, Packeiser T, Roberts CM (2012). The first network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the high seas: the process, the challenges and where next. Marine Policy, 36(3), 598-605.
Grüss A, Kaplan DM, Guénette S, Roberts CM, Botsford LW (2011). Consequences of adult and juvenile movement for marine protected areas. Biological Conservation, 144(2), 692-702. Abstract.
O'Leary BC, Smart JCR, Neale FC, Hawkins JP, Newman S, Milman AC, Roberts CM (2011). Fisheries mismanagement. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(12), 2642-2648. Abstract.
O'Leary BC, Roberts C (2011). Fishery reform: ban political haggling. Nature, 475(7357), 454-454.
Barrett JH, Orton D, Johnstone C, Harland J, Van Neer W, Ervynck A, Roberts C, Locker A, Amundsen C, Enghoff IB, et al (2011). Interpreting the expansion of sea fishing in medieval Europe using stable isotope analysis of archaeological cod bones. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(7), 1516-1524.
Roberts CM, Quinn N, Tucker JW, Woodward PN (2011). Introduction of Hatchery‐Reared Nassau Grouper to a Coral Reef Environment. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 15(1), 159-164.
Thurstan RH, Roberts CM (2010). Ecological meltdown in the firth of clyde, Scotland: Two centuries of change in a coastal marine ecosystem. PLoS ONE, 5(7). Abstract.
Thurstan RH, Brockington S, Roberts CM (2010). The effects of 118 years of industrial fishing on UK bottom trawl fisheries. Nature Communications, 1(2). Abstract.
Thurstan RH, Brockington S, Roberts CM (2010). The effects of 118 years of industrial fishing on UK bottom trawl fisheries. Nature communications, 1 Abstract.
Roberts CM (2009). Effects of Fishing on the Ecosystem Structure of Coral Reefs. Conservation Biology, 9(5), 988-995.
Sáenz‐Arroyo A, Roberts CM (2008). Consilience in fisheries science. Fish and Fisheries, 9(3), 316-327.
Barrett J, Johnstone C, Harland J, Van Neer W, Ervynck A, Makowiecki D, Heinrich D, Hufthammer AK, Enghoff IB, Amundsen C, et al (2008). Detecting the medieval cod trade: a new method and first results. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(4), 850-861.
Gravestock P, Roberts CM, Bailey A (2008). The income requirements of marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management, 51(3), 272-283.
Graham RT, Roberts CM (2007). Assessing the size, growth rate and structure of a seasonal population of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus Smith 1828) using conventional tagging and photo identification. Fisheries Research, 84(1), 71-80.
Mallela J, Roberts C, Harrod C, Goldspink CR (2007). Distributional patterns and community structure of Caribbean coral reef fishes within a river-impacted bay. Journal of Fish Biology, 70(2), 523-537. Abstract.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Gell FR, Dytham C (2007). Effects of trap fishing on reef fish communities. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 17(2), 111-132. Abstract.
Mangi SC, Roberts CM (2007). Factors influencing fish catch levels on Kenya's coral reefs. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 14(4), 245-253.
Roberts C (2007). Faith, evolution, and the burden of proof [2]. Fisheries, 32(2).
Mangi SC, Roberts CM, Rodwell LD (2007). Financial Comparisons of Fishing Gear Used in Kenya's Coral Reef Lagoons. Ambio, 36(8), 671-676.
Graham RT, Carcamo R, Rhodes KL, Roberts CM, Requena N (2007). Historical and contemporary evidence of a mutton snapper (Lutjanus analis Cuvier, 1828) spawning aggregation fishery in decline. Coral Reefs, 27(2), 311-319.
Mangi SC, Roberts CM, Rodwell LD (2007). Reef fisheries management in Kenya: Preliminary approach using the driver–pressure–state–impacts–response (DPSIR) scheme of indicators. Ocean & Coastal Management, 50(5-6), 463-480.
Roberts CM, Halpern B, Palumbi SR, Warner RR (2006). Designing Marine Reserve Networks Why Small, Isolated Protected Areas Are Not Enough. Conservation, 2(3), 10-17.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Dytham C, Schelten C, Nugues MM (2006). Effects of habitat characteristics and sedimentation on performance of marine reserves in St. Lucia. Biological Conservation, 127(4), 487-499. Abstract.
Mangi SC, Roberts CM (2006). Quantifying the environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on Kenya’s coral reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52(12), 1646-1660.
Rodwell LD, Roberts CM (2006). Reply to the comment by Holland and Stokes on "Fishing and the impact of marine reserves in a variable environment". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63(5), 1186-1188.
Sáenz-Arroyo A, Roberts CM, Torre J, Cariño-Olvera M, Hawkins JP (2006). The value of evidence about past abundance: Marine fauna of the Gulf of California through the eyes of 16th to 19th century travellers. Fish and Fisheries, 7(2), 128-146. Abstract.
Graham RT, Roberts CM, Smart JCR (2005). Diving behaviour of whale sharks in relation to a predictable food pulse. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 3(6), 109-116.
Senz-Arroyo A, Roberts C, Torre J, Cario-Olvera M, Enrquez-Andrade R (2005). Rapidly shifting environmental baselines among fishers of the Gulf of California. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272(1575), 1957-1962.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Kooistra D, Buchan K, White S (2005). Sustainability of scuba diving tourism on coral reefs of Saba. Coastal Management, 33(4), 373-387. Abstract.
Roberts CM, Hawkins JP, Gell FR (2005). The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360(1453), 123-132. Abstract.
Sáenz–Arroyo A, Roberts CM, Torre J, Cariño‐Olvera M (2005). Using fishers’ anecdotes, naturalists’ observations and grey literature to reassess marine species at risk: the case of the Gulf grouper in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fish and Fisheries, 6(2), 121-133.
Roberts CM (2004). Advocating against advocacy in fisheries management Fisheries Ecology and Management by Carl J. Walters and Steven J.D. Martell. Princeton University Press, 2004. US$99.50/US$45.00 hbk/pbk (448 pages) ISBN 0 691 11544 3. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19(9), 462-463.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2004). Effects of Artisanal Fishing on Caribbean Coral Reefs. Conservation Biology, 18(1), 215-226. Abstract.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (2004). Effects of fishing on sex-changing Caribbean parrotfishes. Biological Conservation, 115(2), 213-226. Abstract.
Rodwell LD, Roberts CM (2004). Fishing and the impact of marine reserves in a variable environment. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61(11), 2053-2068. Abstract.
Duda TF, Bingham JP, Livett BG, Kohn AJ, Massilia GR, Schultz JR, Down J, Sandall D, Sweedler JV, Fainzilber M, et al (2004). How Much at Risk Are Cone Snails? [3] (multiple letters). Science, 303(5660), 955-957.
Barker NHL, Roberts CM (2004). Scuba diver behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs. Biological Conservation, 120(4), 481-489. Abstract.
Barrett JH, Locker AM, Roberts CM (2004). The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 271(1556), 2417-2421.
Balmford A, Gravestock P, Hockley N, McClean CJ, Roberts CM (2004). The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(26), 9694-9697.
Roberts CM, Branch G, Bustamante RH, Castilla JC, Dugan J, Halpern BS, Lafferty KD, Leslie H, Lubchenco J, McArdle D, et al (2003). Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks. Ecological Applications, 13(1 SUPPL.). Abstract.
Gell FR, Roberts CM (2003). Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18(9), 448-455. Abstract.
Roberts CM, Andelman S, Branch G, Bustamante RH, Castilla JC, Dugan J, Halpern BS, Lafferty KD, Leslie H, Lubchenco J, et al (2003). ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING CANDIDATE SITES FOR MARINE RESERVES. Ecological Applications, 13(sp1), 199-214.
Roberts CM, Andelman S, Branch G, Bustamante RH, Castilla JC, Dugan J, Halpern BS, Lafferty KD, Leslie H, Lubchenco J, et al (2003). Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves. Ecological Applications, 13(1 SUPPL.). Abstract.
Roberts CM (2003). Our shifting perspectives on the oceans. Oryx, 37(2), 166-177.
Nugues MM, Roberts CM (2003). Partial mortality in massive reef corals as an indicator of sediment stress on coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46(3), 314-323.
Chivian E, Roberts CM, Bernstein AS (2003). The Threat to Cone Snails. Science, 302(5644), 391-391.
Rodwell LD, Barbier EB, Roberts CM, McClanahan TR (2003). The importance of habitat quality for marine reserve – fishery linkages. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 60(2), 171-181.
Milner-Gulland EJ, Bennett EL, Abernethy K, Bakarr M, Bennett E, Bodmer R, Brashares J, Cowlishaw G, Elkan P, Eves H, et al (2003). Wild meat: the bigger picture. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18(7), 351-357. Abstract.
Rodwell LD, Barbier EB, Roberts CM, McCLanahan TR (2002). A model of tropical marine reserve-fishery linkages. Natural Resource Modeling, 15(4), 453-486. Abstract.
Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Connell JH, Cornell HV, Hughes TP, Karlson RH, Rosen BR, Briggs JC, Roberts CM, McClean CJ, et al (2002). Coral reef biodiversity and conservation [2] (multiple letters). Science, 296(5570), 1026-1028.
Roberts CM (2002). Deep impact: the rising toll of fishing in the deep sea. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17(5), 242-245. Abstract.
Roberts CM, Sargant H (2002). Fishery benefits of fully protected marine reserves: Why habitat and behavior are important. Natural Resource Modeling, 15(4), 487-507. Abstract.
Roberts CM, McClean CJ, Veron JEN, Hawkins JP, Allen GR, McAllister DE, Mittermeier CG, Schueler FW, Spalding M, Wells F, et al (2002). Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science, 295(5558), 1280-1284. Abstract.
Tupper MH, Wickstrom K, Hilborn R, Roberts CM, Bohnsack JA, Gell F, Hawkins JP, Goodridge R (2002). Marine reserves and fisheries management. Science, 295(5558), 1233-1235.
Roberts CM (2002). Rapid Build‐up of Fish Biomass in a Caribbean Marine Reserve. Conservation Biology, 9(4), 815-826.
Pimm SL, Ayres M, Balmford A, Branch G, Brandon K, Brooks T, Bustamante R, Costanza R, Cowling R, Curran LM, et al (2001). Can We Defy Nature's End?. Science, 293(5538), 2207-2208.
Roberts CM, Bohnsack JA, Gell F, Hawkins JP, Goodridge R (2001). Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. SCIENCE, 294(5548), 1920-1923.  Author URL.
Roberts CM, Ormsby A, Tschirhart J, Berger J, O’Hara JL, Johns D, Reid WV (2001). Emptying the Oceans of Fish. Conservation Biology, 13(1), 216-222.
Roberts CM (2001). What is Natural? Coral Reef Crisis J. Sapp; Oxford University Press, New York, 1999, 275 pages, hardback, ISBN 0-19-512364-6, £22.50 (US$30). Biological Conservation, 98(3), 381-385.
Pezzey JCV, Roberts CM, Urdal BT (2000). A simple bioeconomic model of a marine reserve. Ecological Economics, 33(1), 77-91.
Morris AV, Roberts CM, Hawkins JP (2000). The threatened status of groupers (Epinephelinae). Biodiversity and Conservation, 9(7), 919-942. Abstract.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Clark V (2000). The threatened status of restricted-range coral reef fish species. ANIMAL CONSERVATION, 3, 81-88.  Author URL.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Clark V (2000). The threatened status of restricted-range coral reef fish species. Animal Conservation, 3(1), 81-88. Abstract.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Van't Hof T, De Meyer K, Tratalos J, Aldam C (1999). Effects of recreational scuba diving on Caribbean coral and fish communities. Conservation Biology, 13(4), 888-897. Abstract.
Roberts CM, Hawkins JP (1999). Extinction risk in the sea. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14(6), 241-246. Abstract.
Sladek Nowlis J, Roberts CM (1999). Fisheries benefits and optimal design of marine reserves. Fishery Bulletin, 97(3), 604-616. Abstract.
Bellwood DR, Leis JM, Stobutzki IC, Sale PF, Cowen RK, Roberts CM (1998). Fishery and reef management [3] (multiple letters). Science, 279(5359), 2020-2022.
Roberts C (1998). No-take marine reserves: providing fishery and conservation benefits. North Sea Monitor, 16(3), 4-8. Abstract.
Roberts CM (1998). Sources, sinks, and the design of marine reserve networks. Fisheries, 23(7), 16-19. Abstract.
Roberts CM (1997). Connectivity and Management of Caribbean Coral Reefs. Science, 278(5342), 1454-1457.
Roberts CM (1997). Ecological advice for the global fisher crisis. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12(1), 35-38.
Roberts CM, Hawkins JP (1997). How small can a marine reserve be and still be effective?. CORAL REEFS, 16(3), 150-150.  Author URL.
Nowlis JS, Roberts CM, Smith AH, Siirila E (1997). Human-enhanced impacts of a tropical storm on nearshore coral reefs. Ambio, 26(8), 515-521. Abstract.
Shulman MJ, Polunin NVC, Roberts CM (1997). Reef Fisheries. Ecology, 78(7).
Readman JW, Tolosa I, Law AT, Bartocci J, Azemard S, Hamilton T, Mee LD, Wagener A, Le Tissier M, Roberts C, et al (1996). Discrete bands of petroleum hydrocarbons and molecular organic markers identified within massive coral skeletons. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 32(5), 437-443.
ROBERTS CM (1995). Effects of Fishing on the Ecosystem Structure of Coral Reefs. Conservation Biology, 9(5), 988-995.
Roberts CM, Polunin NVC (1994). Hol Chan: Demonstrating that marine reserves can be remarkably effective. Coral Reefs, 13(2).
Roberts CM, Downing N, Price ARG (1994). Oil on troubled waters: impacts of the Gulf War on coral reefs. Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993, 132-138. Abstract.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (1994). The growth of coastal tourism in the Red Sea: Present and future effects on coral reefs. Ambio, 23(8), 503-508.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (1994). The growth of coastal tourism in the Red Sea: present and possible future effects on coral reefs. Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs, Miami, 1993, 385-391. Abstract.
Roberts CM (1993). Coral reefs: Health, hazards and history. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8(12), 425-427.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (1993). Effects of Recreational Scuba Diving on Coral Reefs: Trampling on Reef-Flat Communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30(1).
Downing N, Roberts C (1993). Has the Gulf War affected coral reefs of the northwestern Gulf?. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 27, 149-156.
Roberts CM, Polunin NVC (1993). Marine reserves: simple solutions to managing complex fisheries?. Ambio, 22(6), 363-368. Abstract.
Price ARG, Sheppard CRC, Roberts CM (1993). The Gulf: its biological setting. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 27, 9-15.
Roberts CM (1993). Trouble ahead for coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26(12), 709-710.
Roberts CM, Ormond RFG (1992). Butterflyfish social behaviour, with special reference to the incidence of territoriality: a review. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 34(1), 79-93.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM (1992). Effects of recreational SCUBA diving on fore-reef slope communities of coral reefs. Biological Conservation, 62(3), 171-178. Abstract.
Roberts CM, Shepherd ARD, Ormond RFG (1992). Large-Scale Variation in Assemblage Structure of Red Sea Butterflyfishes and Angelfishes. Journal of Biogeography, 19(3).
Sheppard C, Price A, Roberts C (1992). Marine ecology of the Arabian region: patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments. Marine ecology of the Arabian region: patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments Abstract.
Wrathall TJ, Roberts CM, Ormond RFG (1992). Territoriality in the butterflyfishChaetodon austriacus. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 34(3), 305-308.
Roberts CM, Polunin NVC (1991). Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries?. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 1(1), 65-91.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM, Adamson T (1991). Effects of a phosphate ship grounding on a Red Sea coral reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22(11), 538-542.
Roberts CM (1991). Kingdom of the Deep Colin Willock. Boxtree, London, 1990. 191 pp. £16.95. ISBN: 1-85283-100-6. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22(2), 97-98.
Roberts CM (1991). Larval mortality and the composition of coral reef fish communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 6(3), 83-87.
Roberts CM (1991). Trophic relationships in the marine environment M. Barnes and R. N. Gibson (Eds). Aberdeen University Press, 1990. 642 pp. Price £65. ISBN: 0-08-037982-6. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22(3).
Scott P, Roberts CM (1989). Confirmation of the Specific Status of Abudefduf natalensis Hensley and Randall (Pisces: Pomacentridae). Ichthyology & Herpetology, 1989(1).
Roberts C, Sheppard C (1988). Oil spill at Sharm-el-Sheikh. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 19(3), 92-93.
Roberts CM (1987). Experimental analysis of resource sharing between herbivorous damselfish and blennies on the Great Barrier Reef. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 111(1), 61-75.


Rogers AD, Aburto-Oropeza O, Appeltans W, Assis J, Ballance LT, Cury P, Duarte C, Favoretto F, Kumagai J, Lovelock C, et al (2023). Critical Habitats and Biodiversity: Inventory, Thresholds and Governance. In  (Ed) The Blue Compendium, Springer Nature, 333-392.
Precht WF, Aronson RB, Gardner TA, Gill JA, Hawkins JP, Hernández-Delgado EA, Jaap WC, McClanahan TR, McField MD, Murdoch TJT, et al (2020). The timing and causality of ecological shifts on Caribbean reefs. In  (Ed) Advances in Marine Biology, 331-360. Abstract.
Roberts CM, Reynolds JD, Côté IM, Hawkins JP (2012). Redesigning coral reef conservation. In  (Ed) Coral Reef Conservation, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 515-537.
Tickell C, Ormond RFG, Roberts CM (2010). The biodiversity of coral reef fishes. In  (Ed) Marine Biodiversity, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 216-257.
Barrett JH, Locker AM, Roberts CM (2009). 'Dark age economics' revisited: the English Fish-bone evidence, 600-1600. In  (Ed) Northern World, 31-59.
Price ARG, Roberts CM, Hawkins JP (2009). Recreational Use of Coral Reefs in the Maldives and Caribbean. In  (Ed) Conservation of Biological Resources, 242-260.
Barrett JH, Locker AM, Roberts CM (2009). ‘Dark Age Economics’ Revisited: the English Fish-Bone Evidence, 600–1600. In  (Ed) Beyond the Catch, Brill Academic Publishers, 29-60.
Reynolds JD, Dulvy NK, Roberts CM (2008). Exploitation and Other Threats to Fish Conservation. In  (Ed) Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries, 319-341.
Barker N, Roberts C (2007). Attitudes to and Preferences of Divers toward Regulation. In  (Ed) New Frontiers in Marine Tourism: Diving Experiences, Sustainabilitv, Management, 171-188.
Barker N, Roberts C (2007). Attitudes to and preferences of divers toward regulation. In  (Ed) New Frontiers in Marine Tourism, 171-187.
Polunin NVC, Roberts CM, Pauly D (1996). Developments in tropical reef fisheries science and management. In  (Ed) Reef Fisheries, Springer Nature, 361-377.
Roberts CM (1996). Settlement and beyond: population regulation and community structure of reef fishes. In  (Ed) Reef Fisheries, Springer Nature, 85-112.
McAllister DE, Schueler FW, Roberts CM, Hawkins JP (1994). Mapping and GIS analysis of the global distribution of coral reef fishes on an equal-area grid. In  (Ed) Mapping the Diversity of Nature, Springer Nature, 155-175.


Nugues MM, Roberts CM (2003). Coral mortality and interaction with algae in relation to sedimentation. Abstract.
Roberts CM (2000). Selecting marine reserve locations: Optimality versus opportunism. Abstract.
Roberts CM (1994). 'Deconstructing' coral reefs.

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