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Professor  Paul Leonard

Professor Paul Leonard

Visiting Professor

 078 28 182 352


My research interests include

  • Marine & Freshwater Science:  Delivery of science – based evidence to meet national & international policy requirements
  • Transport & Fate of Pollutants in the Aquatic Environment: Including radiological assessments and the design and implementation of publically credible environmental monitoring programmes.

I am the CPD Assessor for the Royal Society of Biology and the Institution for Marine Engineering, Science & Technology.

Broad research specialisms:

  • Delivery of marine science
  • Exposure of the public to pollutants
  • Community engagement to provide science – based evidence


BSc (Hons), FSRP, CRadP., C. Biol.,  FRSB., CSci., C MarSci., FI MarEST, FMBA, FLS

Research group links


Research interests

Assessment of doses to the public from radionuclides discharged from nuclear power operations

Research projects

I am the Scientific Adviser to the NERC TREE project ‘Integrating the science needed to underpin radioactivity assessments for humans and wildlife’. 

In 2015 I was reappointed by the Marine Management Organisation to be one of their representatives on the Sussex Inshore & Conservation Agency Committee.


An annual budget of £3.5m, as the Head of the Science Unit in the Marine Environment Division from 1995 to 2007 in the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs , working with c. 10 policy divisions with responsibilities for marine and freshwater matters.  This included project appraisal and supervising over 60 R&D projects annually.

Prior to the London Olympics, Paul instigated a new environmental education and heritage initiative utilising the Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund  The total budget amounted to about £9m.

Universities have sought advice on the way to improve their chances of obtaining grants.  Besides his Defra work, Paul has also been an Assessor for NERC e.g. Chaired a Knowledge Exchange meeting & been a Member of their Peer Review College.  Other assessment duties have included work for the EU & Framework Programmes.

Selected Publications

LEONARD DRP., GRAY R. and PECORELLI J. (2015)  Citizen Crane:  An example of Community engagement, helping assess the environmental use of the River Crane, a tributary of the River Thames.  SEFS9, Geneva 6 – 10 July 2015

NAGALINGAM K., KATSOU E., SCRIMSHAW M., LEONARD DRP., HAINES R., and GRAY R. (2015)  Monitoring the water quality of the River Crane, a tributary of the River Thames SEFS9

LEONARD DRP, DELAHUNTY A and DAPLING T (2014) The role of the Sussex Inshore and Fisheries Conservation Authority in the planning and management of the marine and coastal environment

LEONARD DRP (2013) Conference report:  8th Symposium for European Freshwater Science, Munster, SEFS8 1-5 July 2013.  FBA News 61, 16, Autumn / Winter 2013 / 2014

LEONARD DRP, GRAY R. and Day M (2013) Community engagement on the environmental use of the River Crane, a tributary of the River Thames following a major pollution incident.  8th Symposium for European Freshwater Science, Munster, SEFS8 1-5 July 2013 p. p224

LEONARD DRP (2013) Reply to Leonard & Camplin letter on Radioactivity in Food and the Environment 2011 (RIFE-17) J. Soc. Radiol. Prot. 33 (2), 486.

LEONARD DRP (2012) Reviewer:  Radioactivity in Food and the Environment 2011 (RIFE-17) J. Soc. Radiol. Prot. 32 (4), 532 - 533.

LEONARD DRP (2012) Reviewer:  Principles for the Assessment of Prospective Public Doses Arising from Authorised Discharges of Radioactive Waste to the Environment.  J. Soc. Radiol. Prot. 32 (4), 533.

MOORE N.M., DEPLEDGE M.H., Fleming L., HESS P., LEES D., LEONARD D.R.P., Madsen L., OWEN R., PIRLET H., SEYS J. VASCONCELOS V. and VIARENGO A.  (2012)  Oceans and Human Health (OHH): a European Perspective from the Marine Board of the European Science Foundation (Marine Board-ESF) Microbial Ecology 65, 889-900.

LEONARD DRP (2012) Radiological assessments of the public: the challenge of assessing changes to the ‘Critical Group’ at Sellafield, IRPA13, Glasgow 2012, P01.88 page 399,

LEONARD D.R.P, MARTIN K and VARVILL   (2011)  Developing better community use of the River Crane, a tributary of the River Thames. 7th Symposium for European Freshwater Science, Girona, Spain, SEFS7 July 2011, p119

LEONARD D.R.P. and DEBNEY J. (2009) The River Thames landscape strategy, working in partnership to meet common aims 6th Symposium for European Freshwater Science, Sinaia, Romania, SEFS6 August 2009 p. p60

LARROZE S., LEONARD DRP. AND PICKFORD D (2009) Validation of a three – week amphibian metamorphosis study assaying the African Clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) for the detection of thyroid active substances. 

GARNACHO. E, LAW R., LEONARD D.R.P. and MOREIRA S (eds) (2009) How research can better support policy development in accidental marine pollution.  EU ERANET Publication 4, 12 pp

HAGGAR J.A., JONES M.B., LOWE D., LEONARD D.R.P., OWEN R. and GALLOWAY T.S. (2008) Application of biomarkers for improving risk assessments of chemicals under the Water Framework Directive: a case study  Mar. Poll. Bull 56 1111 - 1118

GALLOWAY T.S., HAGGER J.A., LOWE D., LEONARD D.R.P., OWEN R AND JONES M.B. (2007) Can biomarkers measure the environmental health of estuaries?  ICES CM 2007 / 1:01

HAGGAR J.A., JONES M.B., LEONARD D.R.P., OWEN R. and GALLOWAY T.S. (2006) Biomarkers: Are there more questions than answers? Intgd Env. Assess & Mngmt. 2 (4) 312 - 329

LEONARD DRP (2006) The 2005 Earthwatch Balloon Debate – raising awareness of the importance of freshwater ecology FBA News No. 32, Winter 2005/6 p3.

LEONARD D.R.P., CLARK K.R., SOMERFIELD P. and WARWICK R (2006) The application of an indicator based on taxonomic distinctness for UK marine biodiversity assessments J Env. Mangmt. 78 52 - 62

JONES I, GEORGE G, LEONARD D.R.P, MABERLEY S.C and WINFIELD I (2005) Should the impact of climate change on lakes be taken into account by European policy? An examination using long-term datasets and ecological models.  Fourth Symposium for European Freshwater Sciences, Krakow, SEFS4 August 2005 p 85.

LEONARD D.R.P, MORRIS C.C & WAKERLEY M. J. (2005) How the monitoring programme for Chernobyl radionuclides has helped planning for a future emergency, pp 473 - 477 SRP Int’l Symp. Cardiff June 2005.

MOORE M., READMAN J., DEPLEDGE M.J. AND LEONARD D.R.P. (2004)  An integrated biomarker-based strategy for ecotoxicological evaluation of risk in environmental management Mutation Research 552 247 – 268.

LEONARD D.R.P. (2002) The role of biological research in supporting policy needs  Mar Env Res 54 209 - 213

JACKSON D, McDONALD, P. and LEONARD, D.R.P (2000)  An initial assessment of radiation exposure arising from Pb-210 and Po-210 in terrestrial foodstuffs from regions of England and Wales in Int Symp. SRP, Southport, June 1999.

LEONARD D.R.P. LAW R.J. and KELLY C.A (1999)  Responding to the Sea Empress Oil Spill.  pp 177 – 182 in Proc. Int. Symp. Mar. Poll., Monaco 5 –9 Oct. 1998   IAEA SM-354/86 IAEA – TECDOC - 1094.

McDONALD, P., McKAY, K.,JOHN, C., JACKSON D and LEONARD, D.R.P (1999)  Pb-210 and Po-210 in Terrestrial Foodstuffs from regions of potential technological enhancement in England and Wales.  J. Env. Radio. 43 15 –29.

LAW R.J., THAIN J.E., KIRBY M.F., ALLEN Y.T., LYONS B.P., KELLY C.A., HAWORTH S., DYRYNDA E.A., DYRYNDA P.E.J., HARVEY. J.S., PAGE S., NICHOLSON M.D. AND LEONARD D.R.P.  (1999) The impact of the Sea Empress Oil Spill on Fish and Shellfish  Proc. Sea Empress Conf. 11 - 13 February 1998, Cardiff CIWEM

FULKER, M.J., JACKSON D, LEONARD, D.R.P, McKAY, K., and JOHN, C. (1998)  Dose due to man-made radionuclides in terrestrial wild foods near Sellafield.  J. Radiol. Prot. 18  3 - 13.

SMITH, J T, LEONARD, D.R.P., HILTON J. and APPLEBY P. G. ( 1997 ) Towards a Generalised Model for the Primary and Secondary Contamination of Lakes by Chernobyl - Derived Radiocaesium  Health Physics 72 (6) 880 - 892.

ROSE, C.L., McKAY, W.A., LEONARD, D.R.P., BARR, H.M., TOOLE, J. and HALLIWELL, C.M. ( 1996)  Radioactivity in Two Tide-Washed Areas in the Eastern Irish Sea:  A Radiological Assessment  J. Sci. Tot. Env. 191 1 - 13

SANCHEZ, A.L. HORRILL, A.D., SINGLETON, D.L., and LEONARD, D.R.P (1996) Radionuclides around nuclear sites in England and Wales,  Sci. Tot. Env. 181 51 - 63.

FULKER, M.J., LEONARD, D.R.P, McKAY, K.,JOHN, C. and JACKSON D. (1996) An Assessment of the Radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant.  IRPA 9, Vienna  (2)  604 - 606  ISBN  3-900255-4-5.

TIPPLE, J.R.J. and LEONARD, D.R.P. (1995)  The residence time of stocked hatchery reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykis) in Trawsfynydd Lake and their accummulation of radioactive caesium.  Fish Man. & Ecol. 2 1-10.

LEONARD, D.R.P., MONDON, K.J. and SEGAL, M.G. (1993).  A systematic approach to control radioactive waste discharges.  J. Soc. Radiol. Prot. 13 (1) 43-55.

HILTON, J., LIVENS, F.R., SPEZZANO, P. and LEONARD, D.R.P. (1993).  Retention of radioactive caesium by different soils in the catchment of a small lake.  Sci. Tot. Env. 129 253-266.

LEONARD, D.R.P., CAMPLIN, W.C., CALDWELL, P., BROWN, A. and AUSTIN, L.S. (1992).  Marine Radioactivity in the Channel Islands. Fish Res. Data Rep.  (29) 42pp.

ELLIOTT, J.M., HILTON, J., RIGG, E.  TULLET, P.A., SWIFT, D.J. and LEONARD, D.R.P. (1992).  Sources of variation in post-Chernobyl radiocaesium in fish from two Cumbrian Lakes (north-west England).  J. Appl. Ecol 29 108-119.

LEONARD, D.R.P. (1992).  The history of critical group doses from the consumption of freshwater fish at Trawsfynydd.  pp 70-73 In:  Proc. 8th Int. Cong. IRPA, Montreal, 17-22 May 1992.

HUNT, G.J., LEONARD, D.R.P. and LOVETT, M.B. (1990).  Transfer of environmental plutonium and americium across the human gut: a second study.  Sci. Tot. Env. 90 273-282.

LEONARD, D.R.P., CAMPLIN, W.C. and TIPPLE, J.R. (1990).  The variability of radiocaesium concentrations in freshwater fish caught in the United Kingdom following the Chernobyl reactor incident and an assessment of potential doses to critical group consumers.  In "Int. Symp. on environmental contamination following a major nuclear accident" IAEA Vienna, 16-20 October 1989. IAEA-SM-306/15 1 247-256.

HUNT , G.J., LEONARD, D.R.P. and LOVETT, M.B. (1989).  Transfer of environmental plutonium and americium across the human gut.  Radiol. Prot. Bull 106 7-11.

LEONARD, D.R.P. (1989).  Monitoring for radionuclides at fish farms and from put and take fisheries.  Trout News 9 18-22.

CAMPLIN, W.C., LEONARD, D.R.P., TIPPLE, J.R. and DUCKETT, L. (1989).  Radioactivity in freshwater systems in Cumbria (UK) following the Chernobyl accident.  CEC Contract B16 0246, UK(H).  Fish Res. Data Rep. (18) 90 pp.

HUNT, G.J., LEONARD, D.R.P., FRY, F. (1989).  High-rate seafood consumers near Sellafield: comparison of conventional assessments of caesium-137 intakes with the results of whole-body monitoring.  Rad. Prot. Dosim. 27 (1) 35-41.

LEONARD, D.R.P. and HALL, I.R. (1989).  The design and implementation of an environmental monitoring programme around the Torness nuclear power station.  pp.375-378.  In: E.P. Goldfinch (Ed.), Radiation Protection - Theory and Practice Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Soc. Radiol. Prot., Malvern 4-9 June 1989. Institute of Physics, Bristol and New York.

LEONARD, D.R.P. and HUNT, G.J. (1988).  The use of thermoluminescent dosemeters in measuring external exposure of potential members of a critical group near Sellafield to verify data from habits surveys.  pp. 642-645.  In: Proc. 7th Int. Cong., IRPA, Sydney.  April 10-17, 1988.  Pergamon Press, ISBN 0 08 0344410.

HUNT, G.J., LEONARD, D.R.P. and LOVETT, M.B. (1988).  Transfer factors across the human gut for plutonium and americium in shellfish from near Sellafield. pp.638-641.  In: Proc. 7th Int. Cong., IRPA, Sydney.  April 10-17, 1988.  Pergamon Press, ISBN 0 08 0344410.

DODDINGTON, T.C., JONES, P.G.W. and LEONARD, D.R.P., (1988).  Investigations of radiation exposure pathways from liquid effluent at Hinkley Point nuclear power station: local habits survey, 1986.  Fish Res. Data Rep. (13) 13 pp.

HUNT, G.J., LEONARD, D.R.P. and LOVETT, M.B. (1987).  Comments on the paper "Transfer of environmental plutonium and americium across the human gut".  Sci. Tot. Environ. 64, 330-332.

HUNT, G.J., LEONARD, D.R.P. and LOVETT, M.B. (1986).  Transfer of environmental plutonium and americium across the human gut.  Sci. Tot. Environ. 53 89-109.

HUNT, G.J., LEONARD, D.R.P. and LOVETT, M.B. (1986).  Transfer of environmental plutonium and americium across the human gut.  The Lancet, 22 February, pp. 439-440.

CAMPLIN, W.C., MITCHELL, N.T., LEONARD, D.R.P., and JEFFERIES, D.F. (1986).  Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters  of the British Isles.  Monitoring of fallout from the Chernobyl Reactor Accident.  MAFF Direct. Fish. Res., Lowestoft, AEMR 15  49 pp.

MITCHELL, N.T., CAMPLIN, W.C. and LEONARD, D.R.P., (1986).  The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the UK: A Fisheries Viewpoint.  J. Soc. Radiol. Prot. 6(4), 167-172.

LEONARD, D.R.P., and HUNT, G.J. (1985).  A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: Assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children.  J. Soc. Radiol. Prot. 5(3) 129-138.

LEONARD, D.R.P., (1984).  Investigation of individual radiation exposures: Comparative use of interview and logging techniques in habits surveys of the Cumbrian coastal fishing community pp. 763-766.  In: A. Kaul, R. Nieder, J. Pensko, F.-E. Stieve and H Brunner (Eds.), 'Radiation - Risk-Protection, Vol. II. Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Int. Radiat. Prot. Assoc., Berlin. Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz e. v., Julich. 947 pp.

LEONARD, D.R.P., and SMITH, B.D. (1982).  Sizewell nuclear power station investigation of radiation exposure pathways from liquid effluents: local habits survey 1981.  Sizewell Inq. Ser., MAFF Direct. Fish. Res., Lowestoft, (1), 19 pp., figs., tables.

LEONARD, D.R.P., HUNT, G.J. and JONES, P.G.W. (1982).  Investigation of individual radiation exposures from discharges to the aquatic environment - the technique of habits surveys.  pp. 512-517 In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Radiological Protection - Advances in Theory and Practice, Inverness, 6-11 June 1982.  Vol. II.  Society for Radiological Protection.

LEONARD, D.R.P. and PENTREATH, R.J. (1981).  Further 237Pu experiments with the plaice Pleuronectes platessa: sub-cellular distribution of plutonium in the liver.  Mar. Biol., 63, 67-71.

External Engagement and Impact

Editorial responsibilities

2015 ~ Member of the Board for the Journal of Radiological Protection.

Invited lectures

Many ~ National e.g. via Visiting Professorships at Plymouth, Exeter and Brunel Universities. Other work has included lecturing on marine stewardship at Hull, Sheffield and Queen Mary London Universities + International e.g. in Hong Kong, USA & the EU.

Media Coverage

Media work has included an Earth Watch programme on Radio 4 and helping David Attenborough. With Gavin Ross we covered an Environmental Crime Panel and Paul has worked with Channel 4 on a programme about the environmental impact of the Sellafield Nuclear Plant as well as providing advice to the Science Media Centre.


I am a Visiting Professor delivering lectures on marine stewardship, EU policy and the delivery of science – based evidence.

Supervision / Group

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