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Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

Professor William Horsnell

Professor William Horsnell


 Geoffrey Pope 314


Geoffrey Pope Building, University of Exeter , Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK


I joined the CMM after 20 successful years of research in immunology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. My research interests center on 1: how our exposure to one type of disease alters our ability to control a different disease and 2: how mothers’ immunity can shape offspring immunity. Much of this work focuses on immunity to range of mucosal infectious (including helminths, bacteria, viruses and fungi) and non-infectious (e.g. allergy) diseases.  

At the CMM I will be contributing to the immunology and co-infection research interests of the center. In addition, I contribute to the management of the centers education activities.


PhD Cell Biology. University of London 2001


2023-present: Professor of immunity to infection. Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Mycology at the University of Exeter. UK.

2022-2023: Professor of Immunity to Infection, IDM & Division of Immunology, University of Cape Town. South Africa.

2016-2022: Associate Professor, IDM & Division of Immunology, University of Cape Town. South Africa.

2017-Present: Reader, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham. UK

2017-2018: Le Studium/Marie Curie Visiting Senior Research Fellow. CNRS-Orleans, France. 1 year Sabbatical.        

2008-2015: Lecturer/Senior Lecturer, IDM & Division of Immunology, University of Cape Town.

2003-2008: Post-doctoral Fellow, Prof. Frank Brombacher. Division of Immunology, University of Cape Town. 

2001- 2003: Post-doctoral Fellow. Prof. Alan Morgan. Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool. 

Research group links

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Research interests

Professor Horsnell’s group focuses on two big questions. Firstly, how does immunity against one infection influence control of a different infection? For example, his team is studying how gastrointestinal infections affect the control of sexually transmitted infections, revealing for the first time, that eosinophils regulate viral pathology in the female reproductive tract. This has been successfully translated in field studies in West Africa. He is also undertaking studies addressing how helminth infection induced eosinophils alter host control of the fungal pathogen Pneumocystis.

Secondly, he is interested in the mechanisms that permit mothers to transfer immunity to their children. Ongoing studies are addressing how maternal immunity alters short- and long-term control of infections (including helminths, CandidaSalmonella and Pneumocococus) in offspring via mechanisms including microchimeric regulation of immunity and epithelial development in offspring. His group are translating their pre-clinical discoveries in human studies.

Research projects

Regulation intestinal immunity by fungal colonization

Maternal transfer of immunity to offspring

Roel of gastro-intestinal infection in influencing risk of sexually transmitted disease

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Journal articles

Pillay R, Mkhize-Kwitshana ZL, Horsnell WGC, Icke C, Henderson I, Selkirk ME, Berkachy R, Naidoo P, Niehaus AJ, Singh R, et al (2023). Excretory-secretory products from adult helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis have in vitro bactericidal activity. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 72(11). Abstract.
Chetty A, Darby MGG, Pillaye J, Taliep A, Cunningham AFF, O'Shea MKK, Katawa G, Layland LEE, Ritter M, Horsnell WGC, et al (2023). Induction of Siglec-F<SUP>hi</SUP>CD101<SUP>hi</SUP> eosinophils in the lungs following murine hookworm <i>Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</i> infection. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 14  Author URL.
Jogi NO, Kitaba N, Storaas T, Schlunssen V, Triebner K, Holloway JW, Horsnell WGC, Svanes C, Bertelsen RJ (2022). <i>Ascaris</i> exposure and its association with lung function, asthma, and DNA methylation in Northern Europe. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 149(6), 1960-1969.  Author URL.
Murangi T, Prakash P, Moreira BP, Basera W, Botha M, Cunningham S, Facey-Thomas H, Halajian A, Joshi L, Ramjith J, et al (2022). Ascaris lumbricoides and ticks associated with sensitization to galactose α1,3-galactose and elicitation of the alpha-gal syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 149(2), 698-707.e3. Abstract.  Author URL.
Svanes C, Johannessen A, Bertelsen RJ, Dharmage S, Benediktsdottir B, Bråbäck L, Gislason T, Holm M, Jõgi O, Lodge CJ, et al (2022). Cohort profile: the multigeneration Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) cohort. BMJ Open, 12(6), e059434-e059434. Abstract.
Roberts LB, Berkachy R, Wane M, Patel DF, Schnoeller C, Lord GM, Gounaris K, Ryffel B, Quesniaux V, Darby M, et al (2022). Differential Regulation of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Acetylcholine. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 13  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Oudhoff MJ (2022). Helminths are positively AMPing up gut de-bugging. CELL HOST & MICROBE, 30(1), 1-2.  Author URL.
Omondi MA, Kamassa EH, Katawa G, Tchopba CN, Vogelbusch C, Parcina M, Tchadie EP, Amessoudji OM, Arndts K, Karou SD, et al (2022). Hookworm infection associates with a vaginal Type 1/Type 2 immune signature and increased HPV load. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 13  Author URL.
Katsandegwaza B, Horsnell W, Smith K (2022). Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a Review of Pre-Clinical Murine Models of Human Disease. Int J Mol Sci, 23(16). Abstract.  Author URL.
Chenuet P, Marquant Q, Fauconnier L, Youness A, Mellier M, Marchiol T, Rouxel N, Messaoud-Nacer Y, Maillet I, Ledru A, et al (2022). NLRP6 negatively regulates type 2 immune responses in mice. Allergy, 77(11), 3320-3336. Abstract.  Author URL.
López-Cervantes JP, Shigdel R, Accordini S, Mustafa T, Bertelsen RJ, Makvandi-Nejad S, Lerm M, Horsnell W, Svanes C (2022). Parental TB associated with offspring asthma and rhinitis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 26(6), 544-549. Abstract.  Author URL.
Culerier E, Togbe D, Maillet I, Le Bert M, Selkirk M, Horsnell W, Quesniaux V, Ryffel B (2022). Respiratory research days (J2R) (vol 39, pg 108-131, 2022). REVUE DES MALADIES RESPIRATOIRES, 39(5).  Author URL.
Chetty A, Darby MG, Vornewald PM, Martin-Alonso M, Filz A, Ritter M, McSorley HJ, Masson L, Smith K, Brombacher F, et al (2021). <i>Il4ra</i>-independent vaginal eosinophil accumulation following helminth infection exacerbates epithelial ulcerative pathology of HSV-2 infection. CELL HOST & MICROBE, 29(4), 579-+.  Author URL.
Roberts LB, Schnoeller C, Berkachy R, Darby M, Pillaye J, Oudhoff MJ, Parmar N, Mackowiak C, Sedda D, Quesniaux V, et al (2021). Acetylcholine production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes mucosal immunity to helminths. Science Immunology, 6(57). Abstract.
Holali Ameyapoh A, Katawa G, Ritter M, Tchopba CN, Tchadié PE, Arndts K, Kamassa HE, Mazou B, Amessoudji OM, N'djao A, et al (2021). Hookworm Infections and Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Female Reproductive Tract Infections in Rural Areas of the Central Region of Togo. Front Microbiol, 12 Abstract.  Author URL.
Darby M, Roberts LB, Mackowiak C, Chetty A, Tinelli S, Schnoeller C, Quesniaux V, Berrard S, Togbe D, Selkirk ME, et al (2021). ILC3-derived acetylcholine promotes protease-driven allergic lung pathology. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 147(4), 1513-+.  Author URL.
Taylor M, Pillaye J, Horsnell WGC (2021). Inherent maternal type 2 immunity: Consequences for maternal and offspring health. SEMINARS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 53  Author URL.
Coakley G, Volpe B, Bouchery T, Shah K, Butler A, Geldhof P, Hatherill M, Horsnell WGC, Bieren JE-V, Harris NL, et al (2020). Immune serum-activated human macrophages coordinate with eosinophils to immobilize <i>Ascaris suum</i> larvae. PARASITE IMMUNOLOGY, 42(7).  Author URL.
Chetty A, Omondi MA, Butters C, Smith KA, Katawa G, Ritter M, Layland L, Horsnell W (2020). Impact of Helminth Infections on Female Reproductive Health and Associated Diseases. Front Immunol, 11 Abstract.  Author URL.
Dominguez-Medina CC, Perez-Toledo M, Schager AE, Marshall JL, Cook CN, Bobat S, Hwang H, Chun BJ, Logan E, Bryant JA, et al (2020). Outer membrane protein size and LPS O-antigen define protective antibody targeting to the <i>Salmonella</i> surface. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 11(1).  Author URL.
Nyangahu DD, Darby M, Havyarimana E, Brown BP, Horsnell W, Jaspan HB (2020). Preconception helminth infection alters offspring microbiota and immune subsets in a mouse model. Parasite Immunol, 42(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
de Lange A, Prodjinotho UF, Tomes H, Hagen J, Jacobs B-A, Smith K, Horsnell W, Sikasunge C, Hockman D, Selkirk ME, et al (2020). Taenia larvae possess distinct acetylcholinesterase profiles with implications for host cholinergic signalling. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 14(12). Abstract.  Author URL.
Ardain A, Domingo-Gonzalez R, Das S, Kazer SW, Howard NC, Singh A, Ahmed M, Nhamoyebonde S, Rangel-Moreno J, Ogongo P, et al (2019). Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate early protective immunity against tuberculosis. Nature, 570(7762), 528-532. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dewals BG, Layland LE, da Costa CP, Horsnell WG (2019). Maternal helminth infections and the shaping of offspring immunity. PARASITE IMMUNOLOGY, 41(3).  Author URL.
Horsnell W, Dewals B (2019). Parasitic infections and maternal immunity. Parasite Immunol, 41(3).  Author URL.
Darby MG, Chetty A, Mrjden D, Rolot M, Smith K, Mackowiak C, Sedda D, Nyangahu D, Jaspan H, Toellner K-M, et al (2019). Pre-conception maternal helminth infection transfers via nursing long-lasting cellular immunity against helminths to offspring. SCIENCE ADVANCES, 5(5).  Author URL.
Ardain A, Domingo-Gonzalez R, Das S, Kazer SW, Howard NC, Singh A, Ahmed M, Nhamoyebonde S, Rangel-Moreno J, Ogongo P, et al (2019). Publisher Correction: Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate early protective immunity against tuberculosis. Nature, 572(7768). Abstract.  Author URL.
Benmerzoug S, Bounab B, Rose S, Gosset D, Biet F, Cochard T, Xavier A, Rouxel N, Fauconnier L, Horsnell WGC, et al (2019). Sterile Lung Inflammation Induced by Silica Exacerbates <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> Infection via STING-Dependent Type 2 Immunity. CELL REPORTS, 27(9), 2649-+.  Author URL.
Ujma S, Carse S, Chetty A, Horsnell W, Clark H, Madsen J, Mackay R-M, Watson A, Griffiths M, Katz AA, et al (2019). Surfactant Protein a Impairs Genital HPV16 Pseudovirus Infection by Innate Immune Cell Activation in a Murine Model. Pathogens, 8(4). Abstract.  Author URL.
Schwartz IS, Lerm B, Hoving JC, Kenyon C, Horsnell WG, Basson WJ, Otieno-Odhiambo P, Govender NP, Colebunders R, Botha A, et al (2018). <i>Emergomyces africanus</i> in Soil, South Africa. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 24(2), 377-380.  Author URL.
Dzhivhuho GA, Rehrl SA, Ndlovu H, Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F, Williamson A-L, Chege GK (2018). Chronic schistosomiasis suppresses HIV-specific responses to DNA-MVA and MVA-gp140 Env vaccine regimens despite antihelminthic treatment and increases helminth-associated pathology in a mouse model. PLOS PATHOGENS, 14(7).  Author URL.
Nyangahu DD, Lennard KS, Brown BP, Darby MG, Wendoh JM, Havyarimana E, Smith P, Butcher J, Stintzi A, Mulder N, et al (2018). Disruption of maternal gut microbiota during gestation alters offspring microbiota and immunity. Microbiome, 6(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Logan E, Luabeya AKK, Mulenga H, Mrdjen D, Ontong C, Cunningham AF, Tameris M, McShane H, Scriba TJ, Horsnell WGC, et al (2018). Elevated IgG Responses in Infants Are Associated with Reduced Prevalence of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> Infection. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 9  Author URL.
Rolot M, Dougall AM, Chetty A, Javaux J, Chen T, Xiao X, Machiels B, Selkirk ME, Maizels RM, Hokke C, et al (2018). Helminth-induced IL-4 expands bystander memory CD8<SUP>+</SUP> T cells for early control of viral infection. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 9  Author URL.
Jacobs B-A, Chetty A, Horsnell WGC, Schafer G, Prince S, Smith KA (2018). Hookworm exposure decreases human papillomavirus uptake and cervical cancer cell migration through systemic regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker expression. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 8  Author URL.
O'Shea MK, Fletcher TE, Muller J, Tanner R, Matsumiya M, Bailey JW, Jones J, Smith SG, Koh G, Horsnell WG, et al (2018). Human Hookworm Infection Enhances Mycobacterial Growth Inhibition and Associates with Reduced Risk of Tuberculosis Infection. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 9  Author URL.
Jogi NO, Svanes C, Siiak SP, Logan E, Holloway JW, Igland J, Johannessen A, Levin M, Real FG, Schlunssen V, et al (2018). Zoonotic helminth exposure and risk of allergic diseases: a study of two generations in Norway. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, 48(1), 66-77.  Author URL.
Hoving JC, Cutler AJ, Leeto M, Horsnell WGC, Dewals BG, Nieuwenhuizen NE, Brombacher F (2017). Interleukin 13-mediated colitis in the absence of IL-4Rα signalling. GUT, 66(11), 2037-+.  Author URL.
Ujma S, Horsnell WGC, Katz AA, Clark HW, Schafer G (2017). Non-Pulmonary Immune Functions of Surfactant Proteins a and D. JOURNAL OF INNATE IMMUNITY, 9(1), 3-11.  Author URL.
Claassen-Weitz S, Wiysonge CS, Machingaidze S, Thabane L, Horsnell WGC, Zar HJ, Nicol MP, Kaba M (2016). Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions on Fecal Bacterial Patterns and Their Association with Asthma. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, 7  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Dewals BG (2016). RELMs in the Realm of Helminths. TRENDS IN PARASITOLOGY, 32(7), 512-514.  Author URL.
Kirstein F, Nieuwenhuizen NE, Jayakumar J, Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F (2016). Role of IL-4 receptor α-positive CD4<SUP>+</SUP> T cells in chronic airway hyperresponsiveness. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 137(6), 1852-+.  Author URL.
Thawer S, Auret J, Schnoeller C, Chetty A, Smith K, Darby M, Roberts L, Mackay R-M, Whitwell HJ, Timms JF, et al (2016). Surfactant Protein-D is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection. PLOS PATHOGENS, 12(2).  Author URL.
Darby M, Schnoeller C, Vira A, Culley F, Bobat S, Logan E, Kirstein F, Wess J, Cunningham AF, Brombacher F, et al (2015). The M3 Muscarinic Receptor is Required for Optimal Adaptive Immunity to Helminth and Bacterial Infection. PLOS PATHOGENS, 11(1).  Author URL.
Brown GD, Meintjes G, Kolls JK, Gray C, Horsnell W, Working Group from the EMBO-AIDS Related Mycoses Workshop, Achan B, Alber G, Aloisi M, Armstrong-James D, et al (2014). AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward. Trends Microbiol, 22(3), 107-109. Abstract.  Author URL.
Ndlovu H, Darby M, Froelich M, Horsnell W, Lühder F, Hünig T, Brombacher F (2014). Inducible deletion of CD28 prior to secondary nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection impairs worm expulsion and recall of protective memory CD4⁺ T cell responses. PLoS Pathog, 10(2). Abstract.  Author URL.
Thawer SG, Horsnell WGC, Darby M, Hoving JC, Dewals B, Cutler AJ, Lang D, Brombacher F (2014). Lung-resident CD4<SUP>+</SUP> T cells are sufficient for IL-4Rα-dependent recall immunity to <i>Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</i> infection. MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY, 7(2), 239-248.  Author URL.
Bobat S, Darby M, Mrdjen D, Cook C, Logan E, Auret J, Jones E, Schnoeller C, Flores-Langarica A, Ross EA, et al (2014). Natural and Vaccine-Mediated Immunity to <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium is Impaired by the Helminth <i>Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</i>. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 8(12).  Author URL.
Horsnell W (2014). Preface. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 828, v-vi.
Nieuwenhuizen NE, Meter JM, Horsnell WG, Hoving JC, Fick L, Sharp MF, Darby MG, Parihar SP, Brombacher F, Lopata AL, et al (2013). A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to <i>Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</i>. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 7(8).  Author URL.
du Plessis N, Kleynhans L, Thiart L, van Helden PD, Brombacher F, Horsnell WGC, Walzl G (2013). Acute helminth infection enhances early macrophage mediated control of mycobacterial infection. MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY, 6(5), 931-941.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Darby MG, Hoving JC, Nieuwenhuizen N, McSorley HJ, Ndlovu H, Bobat S, Kimberg M, Kirstein F, Cutler AJ, et al (2013). IL-4Rα-Associated Antigen Processing by B Cells Promotes Immunity in <i>Nippostrongylus</i> <i>brasiliensis</i> Infection. PLOS PATHOGENS, 9(10).  Author URL.
Schmidt S, Hoving JC, Horsnell WGC, Mearns H, Cutler AJ, Brombacher TM, Brombacher F (2012). <i>Nippostrongylus</i>-Induced Intestinal Hypercontractility Requires IL-4 Receptor Alpha-Responsiveness by T Cells in Mice. PLOS ONE, 7(12).  Author URL.
Nieuwenhuizen NE, Kirstein F, Jayakumar J, Emedi B, Hurdayal R, Horsnell WGC, Lopata AL, Brombacher F (2012). Allergic airway disease is unaffected by the absence of IL-4Rα-dependent alternatively activated macrophages. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 130(3), 743-+.  Author URL.
Graham LM, Gupta V, Schafer G, Reid DM, Kimberg M, Dennehy KM, Hornsell WG, Guler R, Campanero-Rhodes MA, Palma AS, et al (2012). The C-type lectin receptor CLECSF8 (CLEC4D) is expressed by myeloid cells and triggers cellular activation through syk kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(31), 25964-25974. Abstract.
Martins Q, Horsnell WGC, Titus W, Rautenbach T, Harris S (2011). Diet determination of the Cape Mountain leopards using global positioning system location clusters and scat analysis. JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 283(2), 81-87.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Vira A, Kirstein F, Mearns H, Hoving JC, Cutler AJ, Dewals B, Myburgh E, Kimberg M, Arendse B, et al (2011). IL-4Rα-responsive smooth muscle cells contribute to initiation of T<sub>H</sub>2 immunity and pulmonary pathology in <i>Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</i> infections. MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY, 4(1), 83-92.  Author URL.
Kirstein F, Horsnell WGC, Nieuwenhuizen N, Ryffel B, Lopata AL, Brombacher F (2010). <i>Anisakis pegreffii</i>-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness is Mediated by Gamma Interferon in the Absence of Interleukin-4 Receptor Alpha Responsiveness. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 78(9), 4077-4086.  Author URL.
Dewals B, Hoving JC, Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F (2010). Control of <i>Schistosoma</i> <i>mansoni</i> egg-induced inflammation by IL-4-responsive CD4<SUP>+</SUP>CD25<SUP>-</SUP>CD103<SUP>+</SUP>Foxp3<SUP>-</SUP> cells is IL-10-dependent. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 40(10), 2837-2847.  Author URL.
Kirstein F, Horsnell WGC, Kuperman DA, Huang X, Erle DJ, Lopata AL, Brombacher F (2010). Expression of IL-4 receptor α on smooth muscle cells is not necessary for development of experimental allergic asthma. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 126(2), 347-354.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F (2010). Genes associated with alternatively activated macrophages discretely regulate helminth infection and pathogenesis in experimental mouse models. IMMUNOBIOLOGY, 215(9-10), 704-708.  Author URL.
Marillier RG, Brombacher TM, Dewals B, Leeto M, Barkhuizen M, Govender D, Kellaway L, Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F (2010). IL-4Rα-responsive smooth muscle cells increase intestinal hypercontractility and contribute to resistance during acute Schistosomiasis. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY, 298(6), G943-G951.  Author URL.
Dewals B, Hoving JC, Leeto M, Marillier RG, Govender U, Cutler AJ, Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F (2009). IL-4Rα Responsiveness of Non-CD4 T Cells Contributes to Resistance in <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i> Infection in Pan-T Cell-Specific IL-4Rα-Deficient Mice. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 175(2), 706-716.  Author URL.
Marillier RG, Michels C, Smith EM, Fick LCE, Leeto M, Dewals B, Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F (2008). IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections. BMC IMMUNOLOGY, 9  Author URL.
Mearns H, Horsnell WGC, Hoving JC, Dewals B, Cutler AJ, Kirstein F, Myburgh E, Arendse B, Brombacher F (2008). Interleukin-4-Promoted T Helper 2 Responses Enhance <i>Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</i>-Induced Pulmonary Pathology. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 76(12), 5535-5542.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Brombacher F (2008). Key Roles for Specific and Nonspecific Antibody in Intestinal Nematode Expulsion. CELL HOST & MICROBE, 4(4), 303-305.  Author URL.
Myburgh E, Horsnell WGC, Cutler AJ, Arendse B, Kubo M, Brombacher F (2008). Murine IL-4 is able to signal via chimeric human IL-4Rα/mouse γ-chain receptor. MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY, 45(5), 1327-1336.  Author URL.
Parsons S, Smith SGD, Martins Q, Horsnell WGC, Gous TA, Streicher EM, Warren RM, van Heiden PD, Gey van Pittius NC (2008). Pulmonary infection due to the dassie bacillus (<i>Myobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex sp.) in a free-living dassie (rock hyrax-<i>Procavia capensis</i>) from South Africa. TUBERCULOSIS, 88(1), 80-83.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Cutler AJ, Hoving CJ, Mearns H, Myburgh E, Arendse B, Finkelman FD, Owens GK, Erle D, Brombacher F, et al (2007). Delayed goblet cell hyperplasia, acetylcholine receptor expression, and worm expulsion in SMC-specific IL-4Rα-deficient mice. PLOS PATHOGENS, 3(1), 46-53.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Cutler AJ, Hoving JC, Mearns H, Myburgh E, Arendse B, Finkelman FD, Owens GK, Erle D, Brombacher F, et al (2007). Delayed goblet cell hyperplasia, acetylcholine receptor expression, and worm expulsion in SMC-specific IL-4Rα-deficient mice (vol 3, pg 1, 2007). PLOS PATHOGENS, 3(4), 566-566.  Author URL.
Schwegmann A, Guler R, Cutler AJ, Arendse B, Horsnell WGC, Flemming A, Kottmann AH, Ryan G, Hide W, Leitges M, et al (2007). Protein kinase C δ is essential for optimal macrophage-mediated phagosomal containment of <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i>. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 104(41), 16251-16256.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Steel GJ, Morgan A (2002). Analysis of NSF mutants reveals residues involved in SNAP binding and ATPase stimulation. Biochemistry, 41(16), 5230-5235. Abstract.


Roberts CW, Horsnell WGC (2015). Effects of sex and maternal immunity on protozoan and helminth infections. In  (Ed) Sex and Gender Differences in Infection and Treatments for Infectious Diseases, 361-388. Abstract.
Horsnell W (2014). Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Preface. In  (Ed) HOW HELMINTHS ALTER IMMUNITY TO INFECTION, III-VI.  Author URL.
Logan E, Chetty A, Horsnell WG (2014). The Role of Antibody in Parasitic Helminth Infections. In  (Ed) HOW HELMINTHS ALTER IMMUNITY TO INFECTION, 1-26.  Author URL.


Jogi NO, Horsnell WCG, Storaas T, Schlunssen V, Bertelsen RJ, Svanes C (2021). <i>Ascaris</i> exposure as associated with lung function and asthma.  Author URL.
Webb K, Moyo-Gwete T, Mendelsohn S, Butters C, Richardson S, Facey-Thomas H, Abrahams D, Madzivhandila M, Makhado Z, Ayres F, et al (2021). SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Phenotype and Immune Gene Expression in Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.  Author URL.
Granslo J-T, Kirkeleit J, Lygre SHL, Horsnell W, Grydeland TB, Storaas T, Reyes-Lingjerde A, Aasen TB, Svanes C (2020). Can persulfates cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis? a report of specific inhalation challenge test in 42 hairdressers.  Author URL.
Jogi NO, Bertelsen RJ, Storaas T, Schlunssen V, Horsnell W, Svanes C (2020). Serum anti-Ascaris IgG concentration and lung function in a multi-centre Northern-European cohort.  Author URL.
Dzhivhuho G, Rehrl S, Ndlovu H, Horsnell W, Brombacher F, Williamson A-L, Chege G (2018). Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in the Absence of Live Worms Suppresses Induction of HIV-1 Env-specific Antibody Responses.  Author URL.
Jogi NO, Siiak SP, Logan E, Schlunssen V, Svanes C, Holloway JW, Bertelsen RJ, Horsnell W (2017). Zoonotic exposure to helminths is associated with allergic sensitization in a Norwegian population.  Author URL.
Humby S, Dzhivhuho G, Ndlovu H, Horsnell W, Brombacher F, Williamson A-L, Chege G (2016). Chronic Helminthiasis Prevents Optimal Boosting of T Cell and Antibody Responses by an MVA-Env Protein HIV Vaccine Regimen in a Mouse Model.  Author URL.
Dzhivhuho G, Humby S, Ndlovu H, Horsnell W, Brombacher F, Williamson A-L, Chege G (2016). Chronic Helminthiasis Suppresses Both T Cell and Antibody Responses to DNA-MVA and MVA-Protein HIV Vaccine Regimens Despite Anti-helminthic Treatment.  Author URL.
Kirstein F, Nieuwenhuizen N, Jayakumar J, Horsnell W, Brombacher F (2016). Role of interleukin-4 receptor alpha<SUP>+</SUP> CD4<SUP>+</SUP> T cells in chronic airway hyperresponsiveness.  Author URL.
Bobat S, Darby M, Mrdjen D, Cook C, Flores-Langarica A, Brombacher F, Horsnell W, Cunningham A (2014). Natural and vaccine-mediated immunity to <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium is impaired by the helminth <i>Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</i>.  Author URL.
Thawer S, Horsnell W, Darby M, Hoving J, Dewals B, Cutler A, Brombacher F (2013). Lung-resident CD4+T cells are sufficient for IL-4Rα dependent recall immunity to nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.  Author URL.
Chetty S, Shephard E, Bowers D, Darby M, Horsnell W, Chapman R, Williamson A (2012). A pantothenate suxotroph of BCG rxpressing Gag confers enhanced HIV-specific immunogenicity compared to wildtype and perfingolysin expressing strains.  Author URL.
Horsnell WGC, Dewals B, Hoving JC, Cutler AJ, Brombacher F (2008). IL-4Rα-driven memory in nematode infections.  Author URL.

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