Publications by year
Winter MJ, Ono Y, Ball JS, Walentinsson A, Michaelsson E, Tochwin A, Scholpp S, Tyler CR, Rees S, Hetheridge MJ, et al
(In Press). A combined human <i>in silico</i> and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated <i>in vivo</i> zebrafish based approach for supporting gene target validation in early drug discovery.
A combined human in silico and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in vivo zebrafish based approach for supporting gene target validation in early drug discovery
AbstractThe clinical heterogeneity of heart failure has challenged our understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms of this disease. In this respect, large-scale patient DNA sequencing studies have become an invaluable strategy for identifying potential genetic contributing factors. The complex aetiology of heart failure, however, also means that in vivo models are vital to understand the links between genetic perturbations and functional impacts. Traditional approaches (e.g. genetically-modified mice) are optimal for assessing small numbers of proposed target genes, but less practical when multiple targets are identified. The zebrafish, in contrast, offers great potential for higher throughput in vivo gene functional assessment to aid target prioritisation and support definitive studies undertaken in mice. Here we used whole-exome sequencing and bioinformatics on human patient data to identify 3 genes (API5, HSPB7, and LMO2) suggestively associated with heart failure that were also predicted to play a broader role in disease aetiology. The role of these genes in cardiovascular system development and function was then further investigated using in vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene mutation analysis in zebrafish. We observed multiple impacts in F0 knockout zebrafish embryos (crispants) following effective somatic mutation, including reductions in ventricle size, pericardial oedema, and chamber malformation. In the case of lmo2, there was also a significant impact on cardiovascular function as well as an expected reduction in erythropoiesis. The data generated from both the human in silico and zebrafish in vivo assessments undertaken supports roles for API5, HSPB7, and LMO2 in human cardiovascular disease and identifies them as potential drug targets for further investigation. The data presented also supports the use of human in silico genetic variant analysis, in combination with zebrafish crispant phenotyping, as a powerful approach for assessing gene function as part of an integrated multi-level drug target validation strategy. Abstract
Winter MJ, Ono Y, Ball JS, Walentinsson A, Michaelsson E, Tochwin A, Scholpp S, Tyler CR, Rees S, Hetheridge MJ, et al (2022). A Combined Human in Silico and CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated in Vivo Zebrafish Based Approach to Provide Phenotypic Data for Supporting Early Target Validation. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 13
Routledge D, Rogers S, Ono Y, Brunt L, Meniel V, Tornillo G, Ashktorab H, Phesse TJ, Scholpp S
(2022). The scaffolding protein flot2 promotes cytoneme-based transport of wnt3 in gastric cancer. eLife
The scaffolding protein flot2 promotes cytoneme-based transport of wnt3 in gastric cancer
The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes during development and many diseases, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Despite their hydrophobic nature, Wnt proteins exert their function over long distances to induce paracrine signalling. Recent studies have identified several factors involved in Wnt secretion; however, our understanding of how Wnt ligands are transported between cells to interact with their cognate receptors is still debated. Here, we demonstrate that gastric cancer cells utilise cytonemes to transport Wnt3 intercellularly to promote proliferation and cell survival. Furthermore, we identify the membrane-bound scaffolding protein Flotillin-2 (Flot2), frequently overexpressed in gastric cancer, as a modulator of these cytonemes. Together with the Wnt co-receptor and cytoneme initiator Ror2, Flot2 determines the number and length of Wnt3 cytonemes in gastric cancer. Finally, we show that Flotillins are also necessary for Wnt8a cytonemes during zebrafish embryogenesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism for Flotillin-mediated Wnt transport on cytonemes in development and disease. Abstract
Saud HA, O'Neill PA, Ono Y, Verbruggen B, Van Aerle R, Kim J, Lee J-S, Ring BC, Kudoh T
(2021). Molecular mechanisms of embryonic tail development in the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. Development
Molecular mechanisms of embryonic tail development in the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus.
Using the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish, we characterized two mutants, shorttail (stl) and balltail (btl). These mutants showed abnormalities in the posterior notochord and muscle development. Taking advantage of a highly inbred isogenic strain of the species, we rapidly identified the mutated genes, noto and msgn1 in the stl and btl mutants, respectively, using a single lane of RNA sequencing without the need of a reference genome or genetic mapping techniques. Next, we confirmed a conserved morphant phenotype in medaka and demonstrate a crucial role of noto and msgn1 in cell sorting between the axial and paraxial part of the tail mesoderm. This novel system could substantially accelerate future small-scale forward-genetic screening and identification of mutations. Therefore, the mangrove killifish could be used as a complementary system alongside existing models for future molecular genetic studies. Abstract
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Alshami IJJ, Ono Y, Correia A, Hacker C, Lange A, Scholpp S, Kawasaki M, Ingham PW, Kudoh T
(2020). Development of the electric organ in embryos and larvae of the knifefish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio. Developmental Biology
Development of the electric organ in embryos and larvae of the knifefish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio
South American Gymnotiform knifefish possess electric organs that generate electric fields for electro-location and electro-communication. Electric organs in fish can be derived from either myogenic cells (myogenic electric organ/mEO) or neurogenic cells (neurogenic electric organ/nEO). To date, the embryonic development of EOs has remained obscure. Here we characterize the development of the mEO in the Gymnotiform bluntnose knifefish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio. We find that EO primordial cells arise during embryonic stages in the ventral edge of the tail myotome, translocate into the ventral fin and develop into syncytial electrocytes at early larval stages. We also describe a pair of thick nerve cords that flank the dorsal aorta, the location and characteristic morphology of which are reminiscent of the nEO in Apteronotid species, suggesting a common evolutionary origin of these tissues. Taken together, our findings reveal the embryonic origins of the mEO and provide a basis for elucidating the mechanisms of evolutionary diversification of electric charge generation by myogenic and neurogenic EOs. Abstract
Bosze B, Ono Y, Mattes B, Sinner C, Gourain V, Thumberger T, Tlili S, Wittbrodt J, Saunders TE, Strähle U, et al
(2020). Pcdh18a regulates endocytosis of E-cadherin during axial mesoderm development in zebrafish. Histochem Cell Biol
Pcdh18a regulates endocytosis of E-cadherin during axial mesoderm development in zebrafish.
The notochord defines the axial structure of all vertebrates during development. Notogenesis is a result of major cell reorganization in the mesoderm, the convergence and the extension of the axial cells. However, it is currently not fully understood how these processes act together in a coordinated way during notochord formation. The prechordal plate is an actively migrating cell population in the central mesoderm anterior to the trailing notochordal plate cells. We show that prechordal plate cells express Protocadherin 18a (Pcdh18a), a member of the cadherin superfamily. We find that Pcdh18a-mediated recycling of E-cadherin adhesion complexes transforms prechordal plate cells into a cohesive and fast migrating cell group. In turn, the prechordal plate cells subsequently instruct the trailing mesoderm. We simulated cell migration during early mesoderm formation using a lattice-based mathematical framework and predicted that the requirement for an anterior, local motile cell cluster could guide the intercalation and extension of the posterior, axial cells. Indeed, a grafting experiment validated the prediction and local Pcdh18a expression induced an ectopic prechordal plate-like cell group migrating towards the animal pole. Our findings indicate that the Pcdh18a is important for prechordal plate formation, which influences the trailing mesodermal cell sheet by orchestrating the morphogenesis of the notochord. Abstract
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Yin J, Lee R, Ono Y, Ingham PW, Saunders TE
(2018). Spatiotemporal Coordination of FGF and Shh Signaling Underlies the Specification of Myoblasts in the Zebrafish Embryo. Developmental Cell
Spatiotemporal Coordination of FGF and Shh Signaling Underlies the Specification of Myoblasts in the Zebrafish Embryo
Somitic cells give rise to a variety of cell types in response to Hh, BMP, and FGF signaling. Cell position within the developing zebrafish somite is highly dynamic: how, when, and where these signals specify cell fate is largely unknown. Combining four-dimensional imaging with pathway perturbations, we characterize the spatiotemporal specification and localization of somitic cells. Muscle formation is guided by highly orchestrated waves of cell specification. We find that FGF directly and indirectly controls the differentiation of fast and slow-twitch muscle lineages, respectively. FGF signaling imposes tight temporal control on Shh induction of slow muscles by regulating the time at which fast-twitch progenitors displace slow-twitch progenitors from contacting the Shh-secreting notochord. Further, we find a reciprocal regulation of fast and slow muscle differentiation, morphogenesis, and migration. In conclusion, robust cell fate determination in the developing somite requires precise spatiotemporal coordination between distinct cell lineages and signaling pathways. Precise spatiotemporal control of signaling pathway activation is crucial for cell fate control and tissue patterning. Yin et al. map somitic cell fates in the developing zebrafish with four-dimensional imaging. FGF signaling imposes tight temporal control on Shh induction of muscle pioneers by non-autonomously regulating migration timing of slow-twitch muscles. Abstract
Gurung R, Ono Y, Baxendale S, Lee SLC, Moore S, Calvert M, Ingham PW
(2017). A Zebrafish Model for a Human Myopathy Associated with Mutation of the Unconventional Myosin MYO18B. Genetics
A Zebrafish Model for a Human Myopathy Associated with Mutation of the Unconventional Myosin MYO18B.
Myosin 18B is an unconventional myosin that has been implicated in tumor progression in humans. In addition, loss-of-function mutations of the MYO18B gene have recently been identified in several patients exhibiting symptoms of nemaline myopathy. In mouse, mutation of Myo18B results in early developmental arrest associated with cardiomyopathy, precluding analysis of its effects on skeletal muscle development. The zebrafish, frozen (fro) mutant was identified as one of a group of immotile mutants in the 1996 Tübingen genetic screen. Mutant embryos display a loss of birefringency in their skeletal muscle, indicative of disrupted sarcomeric organization. Using meiotic mapping, we localized the fro locus to the previously unannotated zebrafish myo18b gene, the product of which shares close to 50% identity with its human ortholog. Transcription of myo18b is restricted to fast-twitch myocytes in the zebrafish embryo; consistent with this, fro mutant embryos exhibit defects specifically in their fast-twitch skeletal muscles. We show that sarcomeric assembly is blocked at an early stage in fro mutants, leading to the disorganized accumulation of actin, myosin, and α-actinin and a complete loss of myofibrillar organization in fast-twitch muscles. Abstract
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Ono Y, Yu W, Jackson HE, Parkin CA, Ingham PW (2015). Adaxial cell migration in the zebrafish embryo is an active cell autonomous property that requires the Prdm1a transcription factor. Differentiation, 89(3-4), 77-86.
Jackson HE, Ono Y, Wang X, Elworthy S, Cunliffe VT, Ingham PW
(2015). The role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification. Skelet Muscle
The role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification.
BACKGROUND: the transcription factor Sox6 has been implicated in regulating muscle fiber type-specific gene expression in mammals. In zebrafish, loss of function of the transcription factor Prdm1a results in a slow to fast-twitch fiber type transformation presaged by ectopic expression of sox6 in slow-twitch progenitors. Morpholino-mediated Sox6 knockdown can suppress this transformation but causes ectopic expression of only one of three slow-twitch specific genes assayed. Here, we use gain and loss of function analysis to analyse further the role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification. METHODS: the GAL4 binary misexpression system was used to express Sox6 ectopically in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements were characterized using transgenic fish. Zinc finger nuclease mediated targeted mutagenesis was used to analyse the effects of loss of Sox6 function in embryonic, larval and adult zebrafish. Zebrafish transgenic for the GCaMP3 Calcium reporter were used to assay Ca2+ transients in wild-type and mutant muscle fibres. RESULTS: Ectopic Sox6 expression is sufficient to downregulate slow-twitch specific gene expression in zebrafish embryos. Cis-regulatory elements upstream of the slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1) and slow troponin c (tnnc1b) genes contain putative Sox6 binding sites required for repression of the former but not the latter. Embryos homozygous for sox6 null alleles expressed tnnc1b throughout the fast-twitch muscle whereas other slow-specific muscle genes, including smyhc1, were expressed ectopically in only a subset of fast-twitch fibers. Ca2+ transients in sox6 mutant fast-twitch fibers were intermediate in their speed and amplitude between those of wild-type slow- and fast-twitch fibers. sox6 homozygotes survived to adulthood and exhibited continued misexpression of tnnc1b as well as smaller slow-twitch fibers. They also exhibited a striking curvature of the spine. CONCLUSIONS: the Sox6 transcription factor is a key regulator of fast-twitch muscle fiber differentiation in the zebrafish, a role similar to that ascribed to its murine ortholog. Abstract
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Ikeda D, Ono Y, Hirano S, Kan-no N, Watabe S
(2013). Lampreys have a single gene cluster for the fast skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family. PLoS One
Lampreys have a single gene cluster for the fast skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family.
Muscle tissues contain the most classic sarcomeric myosin, called myosin II, which consists of 2 heavy chains (MYHs) and 4 light chains. In the case of humans (tetrapod), a total of 6 fast skeletal-type MYH genes (MYHs) are clustered on a single chromosome. In contrast, torafugu (teleost) contains at least 13 fast skeletal MYHs, which are distributed in 5 genomic regions; the MYHs are clustered in 3 of these regions. In the present study, the evolutionary relationship among fast skeletal MYHs is elucidated by comparing the MYHs of teleosts and tetrapods with those of cyclostome lampreys, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates (agnathans). We found that lampreys contain at least 3 fast skeletal MYHs, which are clustered in a head-to-tail manner in a single genomic region. Although there was apparent synteny in the corresponding MYH cluster regions between lampreys and tetrapods, phylogenetic analysis indicated that lamprey and tetrapod MYHs have independently duplicated and diversified. Subsequent transgenic approaches showed that the 5'-flanking sequences of Japanese lamprey fast skeletal MYHs function as a regulatory sequence to drive specific reporter gene expression in the fast skeletal muscle of zebrafish embryos. Although zebrafish MYH promoters showed apparent activity to direct reporter gene expression in myogenic cells derived from mice, promoters from Japanese lamprey MYHs had no activity. These results suggest that the muscle-specific regulatory mechanisms are partially conserved between teleosts and tetrapods but not between cyclostomes and tetrapods, despite the conserved synteny. Abstract
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Yasmin L, Kinoshita S, Asaduzzaman M, Akolkar DB, Ikeda D, Ono Y, Watabe S
(2011). A 5'-flanking region of embryonic-type myosin heavy chain gene, MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂, from torafugu Takifugu rubripes regulates developmental muscle-specific expression. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics
A 5'-flanking region of embryonic-type myosin heavy chain gene, MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂, from torafugu Takifugu rubripes regulates developmental muscle-specific expression.
The myosin heavy chain gene, MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂, is highly expressed in fast muscle fibers of torafugu embryos. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in its expression have been unclear. In this study, we examined spatio-temporal expression patterns of this gene during development by injecting expression vectors containing the GFP reporter gene fused to the 5'-flanking region of MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂ into fertilized eggs of zebrafish and medaka. Although the -2.1kb 5'-flanking region of torafugu MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂ showed no homology with the corresponding regions of zebrafish and medaka orthologous genes on the rVISTA analysis, the torafugu 5'-flanking region activated the GFP expression which was detected in the myotomal compartment for both zebrafish and medaka embryos. The GFP expression was localized to fast and slow muscle fibers in larvae as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to the above tissues, GFP was also expressed in jaw, eye and pectoral fin muscles in embryos and larvae. These results clearly demonstrated that the 2.1 kb 5'-flanking region of MYH(M)₇₄₃₋₂ contains essential cis-regulatory sequences for myogenesis that are conserved among torafugu, zebrafish and medaka. Abstract
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Wang X, Ono Y, Tan SC, Chai RJ, Parkin C, Ingham PW
(2011). Prdm1a and miR-499 act sequentially to restrict Sox6 activity to the fast-twitch muscle lineage in the zebrafish embryo. Development
Prdm1a and miR-499 act sequentially to restrict Sox6 activity to the fast-twitch muscle lineage in the zebrafish embryo
Sox6 has been proposed to play a conserved role in vertebrate skeletal muscle fibre type specification. In zebrafish, sox6 transcription is repressed in slow-twitch progenitors by the Prdm1a transcription factor. Here we identify sox6 cis-regulatory sequences that drive fast-twitch-specific expression in a Prdm1a-dependent manner. We show that sox6 transcription subsequently becomes derepressed in slow-twitch fibres, whereas Sox6 protein remains restricted to fast-twitch fibres. We find that translational repression of sox6 is mediated by miR-499, the slow-twitch-specific expression of which is in turn controlled by Prdm1a, forming a regulatory loop that initiates and maintains the slow-twitch muscle lineage. Abstract
Ono Y, Kinoshita S, Ikeda D, Watabe S (2010). Early development of medaka Oryzias latipes muscles as revealed by transgenic approaches using embryonic and larval types of myosin heavy chain genes. Developmental Dynamics, 239(6), 1807-1817.
Akolkar DB, Kinoshita S, Yasmin L, Ono Y, Ikeda D, Yamaguchi H, Nakaya M, Erdogan O, Watabe S
(2010). Fibre type-specific expression patterns of myosin heavy chain genes in adult torafugu Takifugu rubripes muscles. J Exp Biol
Fibre type-specific expression patterns of myosin heavy chain genes in adult torafugu Takifugu rubripes muscles.
Comprehensive in silico studies, based on the total fugu genome database, which was the first to appear in fish, revealed that torafugu Takifugu rubripes contains 20 sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes (MYH genes) (Ikeda et al. 2007). The present study was undertaken to identify MYH genes that would be expressed in adult muscles. In total, seven MYH genes were found by screening cDNA clone libraries constructed from fast, slow and cardiac muscles. Three MYH genes, fast-type MYH(M86-1), slow-type MYH(M8248) and slow/cardiac-type MYH(M880), were cloned exclusively from fast, slow and cardiac muscles, respectively. Northern blot hybridization substantiated their specific expression, with the exception of MYH(M880). In contrast, transcripts of fast-type MYH(M2528-1) and MYH(M1034) were found in both fast and slow muscles as revealed by cDNA clone library and northern blot techniques. This result was supported by in situ hybridization analysis using specific RNA probes, where transcripts of fast-type MYH(M2528-1) were expressed in fast fibres with small diameters as well as in fibres of superficial slow muscle with large diameters adjacent to fast muscle. Transcripts of fast-type MYH(M86-1) were expressed in all fast fibres with different diameters, whereas transcripts of slow-type MYH(M8248) were restricted to fibres with small diameters located in a superficial part of slow muscle. Interestingly, histochemical analyses showed that fast fibres with small diameters and slow fibres with large diameters both contained acid-stable myofibrillar ATPase, suggesting that these fibres have similar functions, possibly in the generation of muscle fibres irrespective of their fibre types. Abstract
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Ikeda D, Nihei Y, Ono Y, Watabe S
(2010). Three embryonic myosin heavy chain genes encoding different motor domain structures from common carp show distinct expression patterns in cranial muscles. Mar Genomics
Three embryonic myosin heavy chain genes encoding different motor domain structures from common carp show distinct expression patterns in cranial muscles.
Three embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes >> (MYHs) including MYH(emb1), MYH(emb2) and MYH(emb3) and encoding a C-terminal part of MYH were previously cloned and demonstrated to be expressed transiently in this order during development of common carp Cyprinus carpio embryos. The present study determined the full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding the motor domain of the three MYHs, suggesting the implication of loop 1 and loop 2 sequences for the differences in the motor functions. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length amino acid sequences showed that MYH(emb1) and MYH(emb2) both belong to the fast types, though clearly differ from fast-type MYHs expressed in adult fast muscle previously reported. In contrast, MYH(emb3) was in a clade containing slow/cardiac type. Whole-mount immunostaining and in situ hybridization showed that the transcripts of the three embryonic MYHs are localized in the same or different cranial muscles of common carp larvae, suggesting that the three MYHs function cooperatively or individually in various cranial muscles. Abstract
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Ikeda D, Ono Y, Snell P, Edwards YJK, Elgar G, Watabe S
(2007). Divergent evolution of the myosin heavy chain gene family in fish and tetrapods: evidence from comparative genomic analysis. Physiol Genomics
Divergent evolution of the myosin heavy chain gene family in fish and tetrapods: evidence from comparative genomic analysis.
Myosin heavy chain genes (MYHs) are the most important functional domains of myosins, which are highly conserved throughout evolution. The human genome contains 15 MYHs, whereas the corresponding number in teleost appears to be much higher. Although teleosts comprise more than one-half of all vertebrate species, our knowledge of MYHs in teleosts is rather limited. A comprehensive analysis of the torafugu (Takifugu rubripes) genome database enabled us to detect at least 28 MYHs, almost twice as many as in humans. RT-PCR revealed that at least 16 torafugu MYH representatives (5 fast skeletal, 3 cardiac, 2 slow skeletal, 1 superfast, 2 smooth, and 3 nonmuscle types) are actually transcribed. Among these, MYH(M743-2) and MYH(M5) of fast and slow skeletal types, respectively, are expressed during development of torafugu embryos. Syntenic analysis reveals that torafugu fast skeletal MYHs are distributed across five genomic regions, three of which form clusters. Interestingly, while human fast skeletal MYHs form one cluster, its syntenic region in torafugu is duplicated, although each locus contains just a single MYH in torafugu. The results of the syntenic analysis were further confirmed by corresponding analysis of MYHs based on databases from Tetraodon, zebrafish, and medaka genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that fast skeletal MYHs evolved independently in teleosts and tetrapods after fast skeletal MYHs had diverged from four ancestral MYHs. Abstract
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Nihei Y, Kobiyama A, Ikeda D, Ono Y, Ohara S, Cole NJ, Johnston IA, Watabe S
(2006). Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of carp embryonic, slow and cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms. J Exp Biol
(Pt 1), 188-198.
Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of carp embryonic, slow and cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms.
Three embryonic class II myosin heavy chains (MYHs) were cloned from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), MYHemb1, MYHemb2 and MYHemb3. MYH DNA clones were also isolated from the slow muscle of adult carp acclimated to 10 degrees C (MYHS10) and 30 degrees C (MYHS30). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that MYHemb1 and MYHemb2 belonged to the fast skeletal muscle MYH clade. By contrast, the sequence of MYHemb3 was similar to the adult slow muscle isoforms, MYHS10 and MYHS30. MYHemb1 and MYHemb2 transcripts were first detected by northern blot analysis in embryos 61 h post-fertilization (h.p.f.) at the heartbeat stage, with peak expression occurring in 1-month-old juveniles. MYHemb1 continued to be expressed at low levels in 7-month-old juveniles when MYHemb2 was not detectable. MYHemb3 transcripts appeared at almost the same stage as MYHemb1 transcripts did (61 h.p.f.), and these genes showed a similar pattern of expression. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the transcripts of MYHemb1 and MYHemb2 were expressed in the inner part of myotome, whereas MYHemb3 was expressed in the superficial compartment. MYHS10 and MYHS30 mRNAs were first detected at hatching. In adult stages, the expression of slow muscle MYH mRNAs was dependent on acclimation temperature. MYHS10 mRNA was expressed at an acclimation temperature of 10 and 20 degrees C, but not at 30 degrees C. In contrast, MYHS30 mRNA was strongly expressed at all acclimation temperatures. The predominant MYH transcripts found in adult slow muscle and in embryos at hatching were expressed in adult fast muscle at some acclimation temperatures but not others. A MYH DNA clone was isolated from the cardiac muscle of 10 degrees C-acclimated adult fish (MYHcard). MYHcard mRNA was first detected at 61 h.p.f. but strong signals were only observed in the adult myocardium. The present study has therefore revealed a complex pattern of expression of MYH genes in relation to developmental stage, muscle type and acclimation temperature. None of the skeletal muscle MYHs identified so far was strongly expressed during the late juvenile stage, indicating further developmentally regulated members of the MYH II gene family remain to be discovered. Abstract
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Ono Y, Liang C, Ikeda D, Watabe S (2006). cDNA cloning of myosin heavy chain genes from medakaOryzias latipes embryos and larvae and their expression patterns during development. Developmental Dynamics, 235(11), 3092-3101.