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Dr Alex Hayward

Dr Alex Hayward

BBSRC David Phillips Fellow

 01326 259147

 Daphne du Maurier 

 

Daphne du Maurier Building, University of Exeter,  Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK

 Office hours:

Friday 3pm-5pm

Overview

I am fascinated by biodiversity and the forces that structure it. A large proportion of species are parasitic, and a strong focus of my research is on host-parasite interactions. Key topics concern antagonistic coevolution, the factors that influence host specificity, and the assembly of ecological communities. For this, I examine a wide range of systems from across taxonomic diversity, including arthropods, helminth worms, viruses, and transposable elements. Please click the ‘Research’ link in the menu above for further details.

Qualifications

2007 PhD University of Edinburgh
2001 MSc Imperial College,
2000 BSc University of Birmingham

Research

Research interests

Evolutionary significance of transposable elements

Since the onset of the genomics era, it has become apparent that transposons comprise large proportions of many eukaryote genomes, and have made great contributions to host genomic complexity. By harnessing the untapped potential of massive genomic datasets, we can now address fundamental unanswered questions relating to the significance of transposons, including: their impact on host evolution via contribution of coding and regulatory sequences, their influence on major evolutionary processes such as speciation, and the evolutionary dynamics that underpin transposon proliferation.

Host-retrovirus coevolution

Retroviruses have left a rich ‘genomic fossil record’ in vertebrate genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). This represents a rare opportunity to explore host-pathogen interactions over evolutionary timescales. Key questions include examining the evolution of host generalism verses host specialism, identifying key determinants of infectivity, and resolving the early evolution of retroviruses.

Determinants of parasite load

The abundance and diversity of parasites that infect hosts often varies considerably, even among closely related host species. A major unanswered question concerns the role that host traits play in determining parasite load.

Evolution and structure of ecological communities

Ecological communities are complex entities that vary across time and space. The extent to which communities move and persist as single units, verses assembly via recruitment of members from disparate origins, represents an open question. Furthermore, the role played by lower trophic levels in structuring higher trophic levels remains unclear.

Invertebrate developmental genomics

Over 60% of described animal species undergo metamorphosis, many of which are invertebrate taxa. Yet, much remains to be understood regarding both the significance of metamorphosis and its molecular bases. Genomic methods present a powerful means of examining the evolution of invertebrate development more generally.

Key collaborators:

Professor Niclas Kolm (Stockholm University): Parasite load in Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes.

Professor Jerome Hui (Chinese University of Hong Kong): Invertebrate developmental genomics.

Professor Graham Stone (University of Edinburgh): Community structure and assembly in oak gall wasp communities.

Dr Dino McMahon  (Freie Universität Berlin): Insect metamorphosis, host-parasite interactions.

Dr Charlie Cornwallis (Lund University): Comparative phylogenetic analysis of host-parasite interactions.

Research grants

  • 2016 BBSRC
    David Phillips Fellowship

Publications

Key publications | Publications by category | Publications by year

Key publications


Hayward A, Katzourakis A (2015). Endogenous retroviruses. Current Biology, 25(15), R644-R646.
Hayward A, Cornwallis CK, Jern P (2014). Pan-vertebrate comparative genomics unmasks retrovirus macroevolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(2), 464-469.
Hayward A, Grabherr M, Jern P (2013). Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus-host evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(50), 20146-20151.
Groenen MAM, Archibald AL, Uenishi H, Tuggle CK, Takeuchi Y, Rothschild MF, Rogel-Gaillard C, Park C, Milan D, Megens H-J, et al (2012). Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution. Nature, 491(7424), 393-398.

Publications by category


Journal articles

Hayward A, Kolm N, Kotrschal A, Løvlie H, Cornwallis CK, Zidar J, Buechel SD, Tsuboi M (In Press). Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load: insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Full text.
Hayward A (In Press). Origin of the Retroviruses: when, where, and how?. Current Opinion in Virology Abstract.  Full text.
Tsuboi M, Kotrschal A, Hayward A, Buechel SD, Zidar J, Løvlie H, Kolm N (2016). Evolution of brain-body allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Evolution, 70(7), 1559-1568.
Ács Z, Hayward A, Sugár L (2016). Genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (Dictyocaulus, Nematoda) in wild deer in Hungary. Parasitol Res, 115(9), 3295-3312. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Mcmahon DP, Hayward A (2016). Why grow up? a perspective on insect strategies to avoid metamorphosis. Ecological Entomology, 41(5), 505-515. Abstract.
Hayward A, Katzourakis A (2015). Endogenous retroviruses. Current Biology, 25(15), R644-R646.
Kenny NJ, Sin YW, Hayward A, Paps J, Chu KH, Hui JHL (2015). The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1803), 20142983-20142983.
Tsuboi M, Husby A, Kotrschal A, Hayward A, Buechel SD, Zidar J, Løvlie H, Kolm N (2014). Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Evolution, 69(1), 190-200. Full text.
Erezyilmaz DF, Hayward A, Huang Y, Paps J, Acs Z, Delgado JA, Collantes F, Kathirithamby J (2014). Expression of the Pupal Determinant broad during Metamorphic and Neotenic Development of the Strepsipteran Xenos vesparum Rossi. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e93614-e93614. Full text.
Hayward A, Cornwallis CK, Jern P (2014). Pan-vertebrate comparative genomics unmasks retrovirus macroevolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(2), 464-469.
Hayward A, Grabherr M, Jern P (2013). Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus-host evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(50), 20146-20151.
Hayward A, Ghazal A, Andersson G, Andersson L, Jern P (2013). ZBED Evolution: Repeated Utilization of DNA Transposons as Regulators of Diverse Host Functions. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e59940-e59940.
Groenen MAM, Archibald AL, Uenishi H, Tuggle CK, Takeuchi Y, Rothschild MF, Rogel-Gaillard C, Park C, Milan D, Megens H-J, et al (2012). Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution. Nature, 491(7424), 393-398.
HAYWARD A, MCMAHON DP, KATHIRITHAMBY J (2011). Cryptic diversity and female host specificity in a parasitoid where the sexes utilize hosts from separate orders. Molecular Ecology, 20(7), 1508-1528.
McMahon DP, Hayward A, Kathirithamby J (2011). Strepsiptera. Current Biology, 21(8), R271-R272.
McMahon DP, Hayward A, Kathirithamby J (2011). The First Molecular Phylogeny of Strepsiptera (Insecta) Reveals an Early Burst of Molecular Evolution Correlated with the Transition to Endoparasitism. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e21206-e21206.
Nicholls JA, Fuentes-Utrilla P, Hayward A, Melika G, Csóka G, Nieves-Aldrey J-L, Pujade-Villar J, Tavakoli M, Schönrogge K, Stone GN, et al (2010). Community impacts of anthropogenic disturbance: natural enemies exploit multiple routes in pursuit of invading herbivore hosts. BMC Evol Biol, 10 Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Hayward A, Takahashi T, Bendena WG, Tobe SS, Hui JH (2010). Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of vitellogenin and other large lipid transfer proteins in metazoans. FEBS Letters, 584(6), 1273-1278.
Nicholls JA, Preuss S, Hayward A, Melika G, Csóka G, Nieves-Aldrey J-L, Askew RR, Tavakoli M, Schönrogge K, Stone GN, et al (2010). Concordant phylogeography and cryptic speciation in two Western Palaearctic oak gall parasitoid species complexes. Mol Ecol, 19(3), 592-609. Abstract.  Author URL.
HAYWARD A (2010). Cryptic diversity and patterns of host specificity in trematode flatworms. Molecular Ecology, 19(13), 2602-2604.
Hui JH, Hayward A, Bendena WG, Takahashi T, Tobe SS (2010). Evolution and functional divergence of enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid hormone biosynthesis in crustaceans and insects. Peptides, 31(3), 451-455.
Ács Z, Challis RJ, Bihari P, Blaxter M, Hayward A, Melika G, Csóka G, Pénzes Z, Pujade-Villar J, Nieves-Aldrey J-L, et al (2010). Phylogeny and DNA barcoding of inquiline oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Western Palaearctic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55(1), 210-225.
KATHIRITHAMBY J, HAYWARD A, MCMAHON DP, FERREIRA RS, ANDREAZZE R, ALMEIDA ANDRADE HTD, FRESNEAU D (2009). Conspecifics of a heterotrophic heteronomous species of Strepsiptera (Insecta) are matched by molecular characterization. Systematic Entomology, 35(2), 234-242.
McMahon DP, Hayward A, Kathirithamby J (2009). The mitochondrial genome of the 'twisted-wing parasite' Mengenilla australiensis (Insecta, Strepsiptera): a comparative study. BMC Genomics, 10(1), 603-603.
STONE GN, ATKINSON RJ, ROKAS A, ALDREY J-LN, MELIKA G, Ács Z, CSÓKA G, HAYWARD A, BAILEY R, BUCKEE C, et al (2007). Evidence for widespread cryptic sexual generations in apparently purely asexual Andricus gallwasps. Molecular Ecology, 17(2), 652-665.
STONE GN, CHALLIS RJ, ATKINSON RJ, CSÓKA G, HAYWARD A, MELIKA G, MUTUN S, PREUSS S, ROKAS A, SADEGHI E, et al (2007). The phylogeographical clade trade: tracing the impact of human-mediated dispersal on the colonization of northern Europe by the oak gallwasp Andricus kollari. Molecular Ecology, 16(13), 2768-2781.
HAYWARD A, STONE GN (2005). Comparative phylogeography across two trophic levels: the oak gall wasp Andricus kollari and its chalcid parasitoid Megastigmus stigmatizans. Molecular Ecology, 15(2), 479-489.
Hayward A, Stone GN (2005). Oak gall wasp communities: Evolution and ecology. Basic and Applied Ecology, 6(5), 435-443.

Publications by year


In Press

Hayward A, Kolm N, Kotrschal A, Løvlie H, Cornwallis CK, Zidar J, Buechel SD, Tsuboi M (In Press). Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load: insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Full text.
Hayward A (In Press). Origin of the Retroviruses: when, where, and how?. Current Opinion in Virology Abstract.  Full text.

2016

Tsuboi M, Kotrschal A, Hayward A, Buechel SD, Zidar J, Løvlie H, Kolm N (2016). Evolution of brain-body allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Evolution, 70(7), 1559-1568.
Ács Z, Hayward A, Sugár L (2016). Genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (Dictyocaulus, Nematoda) in wild deer in Hungary. Parasitol Res, 115(9), 3295-3312. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Mcmahon DP, Hayward A (2016). Why grow up? a perspective on insect strategies to avoid metamorphosis. Ecological Entomology, 41(5), 505-515. Abstract.

2015

Hayward A, Katzourakis A (2015). Endogenous retroviruses. Current Biology, 25(15), R644-R646.
Kenny NJ, Sin YW, Hayward A, Paps J, Chu KH, Hui JHL (2015). The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1803), 20142983-20142983.

2014

Tsuboi M, Husby A, Kotrschal A, Hayward A, Buechel SD, Zidar J, Løvlie H, Kolm N (2014). Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Evolution, 69(1), 190-200. Full text.
Erezyilmaz DF, Hayward A, Huang Y, Paps J, Acs Z, Delgado JA, Collantes F, Kathirithamby J (2014). Expression of the Pupal Determinant broad during Metamorphic and Neotenic Development of the Strepsipteran Xenos vesparum Rossi. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e93614-e93614. Full text.
Hayward A, Cornwallis CK, Jern P (2014). Pan-vertebrate comparative genomics unmasks retrovirus macroevolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(2), 464-469.

2013

Hayward A, Grabherr M, Jern P (2013). Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus-host evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(50), 20146-20151.
Hayward A, Ghazal A, Andersson G, Andersson L, Jern P (2013). ZBED Evolution: Repeated Utilization of DNA Transposons as Regulators of Diverse Host Functions. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e59940-e59940.

2012

Groenen MAM, Archibald AL, Uenishi H, Tuggle CK, Takeuchi Y, Rothschild MF, Rogel-Gaillard C, Park C, Milan D, Megens H-J, et al (2012). Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution. Nature, 491(7424), 393-398.

2011

HAYWARD A, MCMAHON DP, KATHIRITHAMBY J (2011). Cryptic diversity and female host specificity in a parasitoid where the sexes utilize hosts from separate orders. Molecular Ecology, 20(7), 1508-1528.
McMahon DP, Hayward A, Kathirithamby J (2011). Strepsiptera. Current Biology, 21(8), R271-R272.
McMahon DP, Hayward A, Kathirithamby J (2011). The First Molecular Phylogeny of Strepsiptera (Insecta) Reveals an Early Burst of Molecular Evolution Correlated with the Transition to Endoparasitism. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e21206-e21206.

2010

Nicholls JA, Fuentes-Utrilla P, Hayward A, Melika G, Csóka G, Nieves-Aldrey J-L, Pujade-Villar J, Tavakoli M, Schönrogge K, Stone GN, et al (2010). Community impacts of anthropogenic disturbance: natural enemies exploit multiple routes in pursuit of invading herbivore hosts. BMC Evol Biol, 10 Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Hayward A, Takahashi T, Bendena WG, Tobe SS, Hui JH (2010). Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of vitellogenin and other large lipid transfer proteins in metazoans. FEBS Letters, 584(6), 1273-1278.
Nicholls JA, Preuss S, Hayward A, Melika G, Csóka G, Nieves-Aldrey J-L, Askew RR, Tavakoli M, Schönrogge K, Stone GN, et al (2010). Concordant phylogeography and cryptic speciation in two Western Palaearctic oak gall parasitoid species complexes. Mol Ecol, 19(3), 592-609. Abstract.  Author URL.
HAYWARD A (2010). Cryptic diversity and patterns of host specificity in trematode flatworms. Molecular Ecology, 19(13), 2602-2604.
Hui JH, Hayward A, Bendena WG, Takahashi T, Tobe SS (2010). Evolution and functional divergence of enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid hormone biosynthesis in crustaceans and insects. Peptides, 31(3), 451-455.
Ács Z, Challis RJ, Bihari P, Blaxter M, Hayward A, Melika G, Csóka G, Pénzes Z, Pujade-Villar J, Nieves-Aldrey J-L, et al (2010). Phylogeny and DNA barcoding of inquiline oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Western Palaearctic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55(1), 210-225.

2009

KATHIRITHAMBY J, HAYWARD A, MCMAHON DP, FERREIRA RS, ANDREAZZE R, ALMEIDA ANDRADE HTD, FRESNEAU D (2009). Conspecifics of a heterotrophic heteronomous species of Strepsiptera (Insecta) are matched by molecular characterization. Systematic Entomology, 35(2), 234-242.
McMahon DP, Hayward A, Kathirithamby J (2009). The mitochondrial genome of the 'twisted-wing parasite' Mengenilla australiensis (Insecta, Strepsiptera): a comparative study. BMC Genomics, 10(1), 603-603.

2007

STONE GN, ATKINSON RJ, ROKAS A, ALDREY J-LN, MELIKA G, Ács Z, CSÓKA G, HAYWARD A, BAILEY R, BUCKEE C, et al (2007). Evidence for widespread cryptic sexual generations in apparently purely asexual Andricus gallwasps. Molecular Ecology, 17(2), 652-665.
STONE GN, CHALLIS RJ, ATKINSON RJ, CSÓKA G, HAYWARD A, MELIKA G, MUTUN S, PREUSS S, ROKAS A, SADEGHI E, et al (2007). The phylogeographical clade trade: tracing the impact of human-mediated dispersal on the colonization of northern Europe by the oak gallwasp Andricus kollari. Molecular Ecology, 16(13), 2768-2781.

2005

HAYWARD A, STONE GN (2005). Comparative phylogeography across two trophic levels: the oak gall wasp Andricus kollari and its chalcid parasitoid Megastigmus stigmatizans. Molecular Ecology, 15(2), 479-489.
Hayward A, Stone GN (2005). Oak gall wasp communities: Evolution and ecology. Basic and Applied Ecology, 6(5), 435-443.

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Postgraduate researchers

  • Toby Baril
  • Mathilde Dupeyron
  • Kethry Warren

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