People

All Exeter Staff | All Cornwall Staff

Loading content
Professor Martin Stevens

Professor Martin Stevens

Professor in Sensory and Evolutionary Ecology / Director of Impact Biosciences (Penryn)

 01326 259358

 SERSF 1:21

 

Science and Engineering Research Support Facility (SERSF):, University of Exeter,  Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK

Follow me on Twitter

Follow me on Twitter @SensoryEcology

My work covers sensory ecology and evolution, especially vision and adaptive coloration. Please visit my lab page for more information - this is normally much more up to date than the pages here!

The research conducted in my group and with our collaborators covers a broad range of areas, including:

  • animal vision, in both the natural world and increasingly in an applied context
  • methods to analyse and quantify visual information and animal vision, especially from digital images
  • animal colour change and camouflage, including human impacts on this
  • anti-predator coloration (camouflage, warning signals, and eyespots)
  • brood parasitism and mimicry
  • benefits of understadning animal vision for improiving animal welfare, safety, and training.

A major current area of research is camouflage in marine species and the mechanisms and function of colour change. In addition, I also have other applied projects, such as related to horse vision and safety in horse sports.

I work on a wide range of taxonomic groups, including birds, reptiles, crabs, insects, primates, and even humans. My work combines empirical and theoretical work in the lab and field, both in the UK and abroad (Africa, mainland Europe, SE Asia). It is highly interdisciplinary, incorporating theories and methods from several areas of biology, experimental psychology, and computer science. Please get in touch if you are interested in joining us.

My research group website can be found at www.sensoryecology.com.

I am also a member of the Behaviour research group.

Qualifications

2006 PhD, Bristol
2003 BSc, Bristol (Zoology)

Career

2017 -  Professor of Sensory and Evolutionary Ecology

2015 - Associate Professor of Sensory and Evolutionary Ecology

2012-2014 BBSRC David Philips Senior Research Fellow, Exeter

2009-2012 Fellow, Churchill College, Cambridge

2009-2012 BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellow, Cambridge

2006-2009 Research Fellow, Girton College, Cambridge

2006 PhD Bristol

Links

Frog from Zambia and lantern bug from Borneo

Frog from Zambia and lantern bug from Borneo

Camouflaged ghost crab juvenile from Borneo

Camouflaged ghost crab juvenile from Borneo

Freckled nightjar from Zambia

Freckled nightjar from Zambia

Camouflaged shield bugs

Camouflaged shield bugs

Cuckoo Finch (Anomalospiza imberbis) eggs

Cuckoo Finch (Anomalospiza imberbis) eggs

Horsfield's hawk cuckoo chick from Japan

Horsfields hawk cuckoo chick from Japan

Caterpillar with warning signals from Borneo

Caterpillar with warning signals from Borneo

Eyespots on the wings of an owl butterfly

Eyespots on the wings of an owl butterfly

Research

Research interests

More up to date information is available on my lab website.

We study a range of subjects in sensory and evolutionary ecology, but most notably adaptive coloration and vision. Most of our research covers anti-predator coloration, brood parasitism, and methods to study vision and visual signals. Our work is interdisciplinary, spanning sensory, behavioural, evolutionary biology, and incorporates ideas and methods from experimental psychology and computer vision. We work on various taxonomic groups, including birds, reptiles, crustaceans, insects, and primates. Most of our work has focussed on anti-predator coloration and brood parasitism. 

Currently, two major areas of research in the lab are to study animal colour change for camouflage (both mechanisms and functions), and applied benefits of understanding animal vision.

Some of our main aims are to:

  • Understand animal coloration in terms of how the signals are perceived by the relevant receiver(s), and use this to study how visual information guides behaviour. This includes in an applied context, such as in animal sports and farming, and for determining human impacts on animals.
  • Determine how arms races and coevolution can drive both intra- and interspecific diversity in animal coloration and vision.
  • Understand how the form and diversity of coloration and visual systems results from varied selection pressures, for example from different habitat structures and for both communication and predator avoidance.

Anti-Predator Coloration
Camouflage
Much of our research aims to understand various forms of anti-predator coloration. A major avenue of research is work on camouflage, whereby we aim to understand how different types of camouflage work (e.g. background matching, disruptive coloration), and the survival value that they bring. Studies in the UK involve experiments with artificial ‘moth’ prey presented to wild bird predators in woodland and models of predator vision, and computer 'games' presented to human subjects.

Another major area here is to test the mechanisms and adaptive value of colour change in animals. To do so, we study a range of marine species, including crabs, chameleon prawns, and fish. This work also includes testing the influence of climate change and pollution on colour change and camouflage.

We have also had further key projects investigating camouflage in wild animals, such as ground nesting birds, especially in several species of plover in South Africa and nightjar in Zambia. 

Warning signals, startle displays, and mimicry
We study what makes an effective startle display in animals at deterring predators, by presenting artificial prey to wild birds, and how ladybird coloration may be used both as anti-predator coloration and as mating signals. Much of our past and current work is also aimed at understanding the evolution and function of animal eyespots.

Brood Parasitism
We have been working on the use of visual signals involved in avian brood parasitism, mostly in host egg rejection behaviour and parasitic egg mimicry, but also in terms of host chick mimicry. We have investigated (with Cassie Stoddard, Princeton) exactly what visual attributes are most important in successful egg mimicry by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) to prevent rejection by hosts. With Claire Spottiswoode, we are studying brood parasitism in African brood parasites, especially in the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis) and its hosts, which have remarkably polymorphic eggs and refined mimicry and rejection behaviour.

Vision & Image Analysis Methods to Study Visual Signals
Our work on adaptive coloration is underpinned by trying to understand the visual mechanisms involved. The model receivers we are most interested in are birds, and we use and produce models analysing visual signals from a bird’s visual perspective. In addition, we have also modelled insect and primate vision, and collaborate with James Higham (New York University) on primate visual signals. We are also interested in developing techniques, especially digital image analysis, to quantify complex two dimensional signals, both in terms of pattern and colour with respect to animal vision and producing models of spatial vision.

A more recent major avaneue of work is to explore how undertsanding animal vision can have applied benefits in developing new products and informing about issues related to animal welfare and productivity.

Finally, I also have a keen interest in the history of science, especially evolutionary theory and the life and works of early biologists and naturalists like AR Wallace, Hugh Cott, and Abbott Thayer, and have published on some of these issues.

Research Grants

In addition to those below, I have received various grants from industry.

  • 14/11/2016 – 14/05/2017: BBSRC Pathfinder. Imaging Animal Vision.
  • 10/08/2016 – 24/08/2016: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP. Visiting research collaboration at University of São Paulo.
  • 01/10/2014 - 30/09/207: BBSRC Standard Grant. Predator learning of camouflage types.
  • 01/08/2012 – 30/09/2014: BBSRC Standard Grant. Predator Vision and Avian Egg Camouflage.
  • 01/10/2009 - 30/09/2014: BBSRC David Phillips Fellowship. Predator vision and defensive coloration: from mechanism to function.
  • 2008: Royal Society Research Grant. Predator perception and the evolutionary design of warning signals.
  • A range of smaller grants and various undergraduate summer projects grants from organisations like the Nuffield Foundation, ASAB, BES, and the BBSRC.

Research networks

External Collaborators

  • Graeme Ruxton (St Andrews): Anti-predator behaviour, prey movement, and coloration.
  • James Higham (New York University): Primate vision and sexual signals.
  • Johanna Mappes (University of Jyväskylä): Predator foraging, the evolution of prey polymorphisms, and warning signals.
  • Carita Lindstedt: (University of Jyväskylä): Prey polymorphisms, and warning signals.
  • Claire Spottiswoode (Cambridge, Zoology): Coevolution and arms races in African parasitic finches and their hosts, and the evolution of egg colour polymorphism and rejection behaviour.
  • Chris Jiggins (Cambridge, Zoology): Evolution of mimicry and selection on Heliconius butterflies.
  • Keita Tanaka (Rikkyo University): Brood parasitism in cuckoos and begging signals.
  • David Tolhurst (Cambridge, Department of Physiology, Development & Neuroscience): Psychophysics and biology of anti-predator coloration and motion perception.
  • Peter Todd (National University of Singapore): Crab camouflage and polymorphism.
  • John Skelhorn (Newcastle University): Camouflage and learning.

Links


Key publications | Publications by category | Publications by year

Key publications


Troscianko J, Stevens M (2015). Image Calibration and Analysis Toolbox – a free software suite for objectively measuring reflectance, colour and pattern. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 1320-1331. Full text.
Allen WL, Stevens M, Higham JP (2014). Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals. Nat Commun, 5 Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Lown AE, Denton AM (2014). Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage. PLoS One, 9
Stevens M (2013). Evolutionary ecology: knowing how to hide your eggs. Curr Biol, 23(3), R106-R108. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Troscianko J, Spottiswoode CN (2013). Repeated targeting of the same hosts by a brood parasite compromises host egg rejection. Nat Commun, 4 Abstract.  Author URL.
Stoddard MC, Stevens M (2010). Pattern mimicry of host eggs by the common cuckoo, as seen through a bird's eye. Proc Biol Sci, 277(1686), 1387-1393. Abstract.  Author URL.

Publications by category


Books

Stevens M (2016). Cheats and Deceits How Animals and Plants Exploit and Mislead., Oxford University Press. Abstract.
Stevens M (2013). Sensory Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution., OUP Oxford.
Stevens M, Merilaita S (2011). Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function., Cambridge University Press.

Journal articles

Nokelainen O, Stevens M (In Press). Camouflage. Curr Biol, 26(14), R654-R656. Abstract.  Author URL.
Blount J, Paul SC, Stevens M, birkett M, Pell JK (In Press). Parental phenotype not predator cues influence egg warning coloration and defence levels. Animal Behaviour Full text.
Briolat E, Zagrobelny M, Blount J, Stevens M (In Press). Sex differences but no evidence of quantitative honesty in the warning signals of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae L.). Evolution Full text.
Badas EP, Martínez J, Rivero-de Aguilar J, Ponce C, Stevens M, Merino S (2018). Colour change in a structural ornament is related to individual quality, parasites and mating patterns in the blue tit. Naturwissenschaften, 105, 17-17. Full text.
Nokelainen O, Stevens M, Caro T (2018). Colour polymorphism in the coconut crab (Birgus latro). Evolutionary Ecology, 32, 75-75. Full text.
Blount J, Paul S, Stevens M, Burton J, Pell J, Burkett M (2018). Invasive egg predators and food availability interactively affect maternal investment in egg chemical defence. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 4-4. Full text.
Duarte RC, Flores AAV, Stevens M (2017). Camouflage through colour change: mechanisms, adaptive value, and ecological significance. Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences, 372, 20160342-20160342. Full text.
Niu Y, Chen Z, Stevens M, Sun H (2017). Divergence in cryptic leaf colour provides local camouflage in an alpine plant. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284, 20171654-20171654. Full text.
Arenas LM, Stevens M (2017). Diversity in warning coloration is easily recognised by avian predators. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 30, 1288-1302. Full text.
Caves EM, Stevens M, Spottiswoode CN (2017). Does coevolution with a shared parasite drive hosts to partition their defences among species?. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1854), 20170272-20170272. Abstract.
Geltsch N, Moskat C, Elek Z, Ban M, Stevens M (2017). Egg spotting pattern in the common cuckoo and its great reed warbler host: a century perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 121, 50-50. Full text.
Badás EP, Martínez J, Rivero-de Aguilar J, Stevens M, van der Velde M, Komdeur J, Merino S (2017). Eggshell pigmentation in the blue tit: male quality matters. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71, 57-57. Full text.
Stevens M, Troscianko J, Wilson-Aggarwal JK, Spottiswoode CN (2017). Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 1, 1325-1325. Full text.
Koski T-M, Lindstedt C, Klemola T, Troscianko J, Mäntylä E, Tyystjärvi E, Stevens M, Helander M, Laaksonen T (2017). Insect herbivory may cause changes in the visual properties of leaves and affect the camouflage of herbivores to avian predators. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 97-97. Full text.
Troscianko J, Skelhorn J, Stevens M (2017). Quantifying camouflage: how to predict detectability from appearance. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17, 7-7. Full text.
Troscianko J, Wilson-Aggarwal J, Griffiths D, Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2017). Relative advantages of dichromatic and trichromatic color vision in camouflage breaking. Behavioral Ecology, 28, 556-556. Full text.
Smithers SP, Wilson A, Stevens M (2017). Rock pool gobies change their body pattern in response to background features. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 121, 109-121. Full text.
Pérez-Rodríguez L, Jovani R, Stevens M (2017). Shape matters: animal colour patterns as signals of individual quality. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284, 20162446-20162446. Full text.
Cuthill IC, Allen WL, Arbuckle K, Caspers B, Chaplin G, Hauber ME, Hill GE, Jablonski NG, Jiggins CD, Kelber A, et al (2017). The biology of color. Science, 357(6350), eaan0221-eaan0221. Abstract.
Nokelainen O, Hubbard N, Lown AE, Wood LE, Stevens M (2017). Through predators’ eyes - phenotype-environment associations in shore crab coloration at different spatial scales. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 122, 738-751. Full text.
Dell'aglio DD, Stevens M, Jiggins CD (2016). Avoidance of an aposematically coloured butterfly by wild birds in a tropical forest. Ecological Entomology, 41(5), 627-632. Abstract.
Medina I, Troscianko J, Stevens M, Langmore NE (2016). Brood Parasitism is Linked to Egg Pattern Diversity within and among Species of Australian Passerines. Am Nat, 187(3), 351-362. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Troscianko J, Wilson-Aggarwal J, Stevens M, Spottiswoode CN (2016). Camou age predicts survival in ground-nesting birds. Scientific Reports, 6 Full text.
Stevens M (2016). Color Change, Phenotypic Plasticity, and Camouflage. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 4 Full text.
Wilson-Aggarwal, Troscianko, Stevens M, Spottiswoode CN (2016). Escape distance in ground-nesting birds differs with individual level of camouflage. The American Naturalist, 188, 231-231. Full text.
Marshall KLA, Philpott KE, Stevens M (2016). Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camou age against avian predators. Scientific Reports, 6 Full text.
Troscianko, Wilson-Aggarwal, Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2016). Nest covering in plovers: how modifying the visual environment influences egg camouflage. Ecology and Evolution, 6, 7536-7545. Full text.
Chan IZW, Stevens M, Todd PA (2016). Quantifying shell pattern and colour polymorphism in the button snail Umbonium vestiarium (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochacea) and comparing morph frequencies between two populations using the Mantel test. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 2016, 22-32. Abstract.
Duarte RC, Stevens M, Flores AAV (2016). Shape, colour plasticity, and habitat use indicate morph-specific camouflage strategies in a marine shrimp. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 16, 218-218. Full text.
Caro T, Sherratt TN, Stevens M (2016). The ecology of multiple colour defences. Evolutionary Ecology, 30, 797-809. Full text.
Stevens M (2016). When to attack defended prey? a comment on Skelhorn et al. Behavioral Ecology, 27(4).
Stevens M (2015). Anti-Predator Coloration and Behaviour: a Longstanding Topic with Many Outstanding Questions. CURRENT ZOOLOGY, 61(4), 702-707. Author URL.
Flores EE, Stevens M, Moore AJ, Rowland HM, Blount JD (2015). Body size but not warning signal luminance influences predation risk in recently metamorphosed poison frogs. Ecology and evolution, 5(20), 4603-4616. Abstract.  Full text.
Burriss R, Troscianko J, Lovell PG, Fulford AJC, Stevens M, Quigley R, Payne J, Saxton TK, Rowland HM (2015). Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System. PLoS ONE, 10, e0130093-e0130093.
Marshall KL, Philpot KE, Stevens M (2015). Conspicuous male coloration impairs survival against avian predators in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii. Ecology and evolution, 5(18), 4115-4131. Abstract.
Troscianko J, Stevens M, Skelhorn J (2015). Does Disruptive Camouflage Disrupt Search Image Formation?. PERCEPTION, 44(10), 1239-1240. Author URL.
Stevens M (2015). Evolutionary Ecology: Insect Mothers Control Their Egg Colours. Curr Biol, 25(17), R755-R757. Abstract.  Author URL.
Caves EM, Stevens M, Iversen ES, Spottiswoode CN (2015). Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved egg signatures with elevated information content. Proc Biol Sci, 282(1810). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Troscianko J, Stevens M (2015). Image Calibration and Analysis Toolbox – a free software suite for objectively measuring reflectance, colour and pattern. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 1320-1331. Full text.
Marshall KLA, Philpot KE, Damas-Moreira I, Stevens M (2015). Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage. PLoS One, 10(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Broderick AC, Godley BJ, Lown AE, Troscianko J, Weber N, Weber SB (2015). Phenotype-environment matching in sand fleas. Biol Lett, 11(8). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Arenas LM, Walter D, Stevens M (2015). Signal honesty and predation risk among a closely related group of aposematic species. Scientific Reports, 5, 11021-11021. Full text.
Ruxton GD, Stevens M (2015). The evolutionary ecology of decorating behaviour. Biol Lett, 11(6). Abstract.  Author URL.
Hughes AE, Magor-Elliott RS, Stevens M (2015). The role of stripe orientation in target capture success. Frontiers in Zoology, 12, 17-17. Full text.
Stevens M, Lown AE, Wood LE (2014). Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from different habitats. PLoS One, 9(12). Abstract.  Author URL.
Kang C, Stevens M, Moon J-Y, Lee S-I, Jablonski PG (2014). Camouflage through behavior in moths: the role of background matching and disruptive coloration. Behavioral Ecology
Allen WL, Stevens M, Higham JP (2014). Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals. Nat Commun, 5 Abstract.  Author URL.
Arenas LM, Troscianko J, Stevens M (2014). Color contrast and stability as key elements for effective warning signals. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2
Stevens M, Lown AE, Wood LE (2014). Colour change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2
Stevens M (2014). Confusion and illusion: understanding visual traits and behavior. A comment on Kelley and Kelley. Behavioral Ecology, 25(3), 464-465.
Stevens M, Ruxton GD (2014). Do animal eyespots really mimic eyes?. Current Zoology, 60(1), 26-36. Abstract.
Stevens M (2014). Evolution: predator versus parasite. Curr Biol, 24(10), R388-R390. Abstract.  Author URL.
Winters AE, Stevens M, Mitchell C, Blomberg SP, Blount JD (2014). Maternal effects and warning signal honesty in eggs and offspring of an aposematic ladybird beetle. Functional Ecology, 28(5), 1187-1196. Full text.
Hughes AE, Stevens M, Tolhurst DJ (2014). Methods and mechanisms of motion dazzle. I-PERCEPTION, 5(5). Author URL.
Hughes AE, Troscianko J, Stevens M (2014). Motion dazzle and the effects of target patterning on capture success. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14
Hughes AE, Troscianko J, Stevens M (2014). Motion dazzle and the effects of target patterning on capture success. BMC Evol Biol, 14 Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Lown AE, Denton AM (2014). Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage. PLoS One, 9
Marshall KLA, Stevens M (2014). Wall lizards display conspicuous signals to conspecifics and reduce detection by avian predators. Behavioral Ecology
(2013). A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment. Proceedings. Biological sciences / the Royal Society, 280(1756). Abstract.
Walker LK, Stevens M, Karadaş F, Kilner RM, Ewen JG (2013). A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment. Proc Biol Sci, 280(1756). Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2013). Bird brood parasitism. Curr Biol, 23(20), R909-R913. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Rong CP, Todd PA (2013). Colour change and camouflage in the horned ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109(2), 257-270. Abstract.
Stevens M (2013). Concealing Coloration in Animals. Animal Behaviour, 86(6), 1333-1334.
Troscianko J, Lown AE, Hughes AE, Stevens M (2013). Defeating crypsis: detection and learning of camouflage strategies. PLoS One, 8(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Flores EE, Stevens M, Moore AJ, Blount JD (2013). Diet, development and the optimization of warning signals in post-metamorphic green and black poison frogs. Functional Ecology, 27(3), 816-829. Abstract.
Flores EE, Stevens M, Moore AJ, Blount JD (2013). Diet, development and the optimization of warning signals in post-metamorphic green and black poison frogs. Functional Ecology
Teasdale LC, Stevens M, Stuart-Fox D (2013). Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26(5), 1035-1046. Abstract.
Teasdale LC, Stevens M, Stuart-Fox D (2013). Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs. Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Stevens M (2013). Evolutionary ecology: knowing how to hide your eggs. Curr Biol, 23(3), R106-R108. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2013). Exchanging messages between plants and animals. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28(7), 386-387.
Stevens M, Troscianko J, Spottiswoode CN (2013). Repeated targeting of the same hosts by a brood parasite compromises host egg rejection. Nat Commun, 4 Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Marshall KLA, Troscianko J, Finlay S, Burnand D, Chadwick SL (2013). Revealed by conspicuousness: Distractive markings reduce camouflage. Behavioral Ecology, 24(1), 213-222. Abstract.
Higham JP, Pfefferle D, Heistermann M, Maestripieri D, Stevens M (2013). Signaling in multiple modalities in male rhesus macaques: sex skin coloration and barks in relation to androgen levels, social status, and mating behavior. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1-13.
Higham JP, Pfefferle D, Heistermann M, Maestripieri D, Stevens M (2013). Signaling in multiple modalities in male rhesus macaques: sex skin coloration and barks in relation to androgen levels, social status, and mating behavior. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY, 67(9), 1457-1469. Author URL.
Stevens M, Troscianko J, Marshall KLA, Finlay S (2013). What is camouflage through distractive markings a reply to Merilaita et al. (2013). Behavioral Ecology, 24(5).
Merrill RM, Wallbank RWR, Bull V, Salazar PCA, Mallet J, Stevens M, Jiggins CD (2012). Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue. Proc Biol Sci, 279(1749), 4907-4913. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hughes A, Stevens M, Tolhurst D (2012). Factors that affect tracking of occluded target motion. PERCEPTION, 41, 118-118. Author URL.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2012). Host-Parasite Arms Races and Rapid Changes in Bird Egg Appearance. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 179(5), 633-648. Author URL.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2012). Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance. Am Nat, 179(5), 633-648. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Ruxton GD (2012). Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature. Proc Biol Sci, 279(1728), 417-426. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hughes A, Troscianko J, Tolhurst D, Stevens M (2012). Prey movement and the mechanisms of dazzle coloration. PERCEPTION, 41(10), 1271-1271. Author URL.
Stevens M (2011). Avian vision and egg colouration: Concepts and measurements. Avian Biology Research, 4(4), 168-184. Abstract.
Stoddard MC, Stevens M (2011). Avian vision and the evolution of egg color mimicry in the common cuckoo. Evolution, 65(7), 2004-2013. Abstract.  Author URL.
Lindstedt C, Eager H, Ihalainen E, Kahilainen A, Stevens M, Mappes J (2011). Direction and strength of selection by predators for the color of the aposematic wood tiger moth. Behavioral Ecology, 22(3), 580-587. Abstract.
Higham JP, Hughes KD, Brent LJN, Dubuc C, Engelhardt A, Heistermann M, Maestriperi D, Santos LR, Stevens M (2011). Familiarity affects the assessment of female facial signals of fertility by free-ranging male rhesus macaques. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1723), 3452-3458. Abstract.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2011). How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences. Proc Biol Sci, 278(1724), 3566-3573. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Searle WTL, Seymour JE, Marshall KLA, Ruxton GD (2011). Motion dazzle and camouflage as distinct anti-predator defenses. BMC Biol, 9 Abstract.  Author URL.
Tanaka KD, Morimoto G, Stevens M, Ueda K (2011). Rethinking visual supernormal stimuli in cuckoos: Visual modeling of host and parasite signals. Behavioral Ecology, 22(5), 1012-1019. Abstract.
Langmore NE, Stevens M, Maurer G, Heinsohn R, Hall ML, Peters A, Kilner RM (2011). Visual mimicry of host nestlings by cuckoos. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1717), 2455-2463. Abstract.
Higham JP, Brent LJN, Dubuc C, Accamando AK, Engelhardt A, Gerald MS, Heistermann M, Stevens M (2010). Color signal information content and the eye of the beholder: a case study in the rhesus macaque. Behavioral Ecology, 21(4), 739-746. Abstract.
Stoddard MC, Stevens M (2010). Pattern mimicry of host eggs by the common cuckoo, as seen through a bird's eye. Proc Biol Sci, 277(1686), 1387-1393. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2010). Sensory ecology, evolution, and behavior. Current Zoology, 56(3).
Shultziner D, Stevens T, Stevens M, Stewart BA, Hannagan RJ, Saltini-Semerari G (2010). The causes and scope of political egalitarianism during the Last Glacial: a multi-disciplinary perspective. Biology and Philosophy, 25(3), 319-346. Abstract.
Sandre SL, Stevens M, Mappes J (2010). The effect of predator appetite, prey warning coloration and luminance on predator foraging decisions. Behaviour, 147(9), 1121-1143. Abstract.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2010). Visual modeling shows that avian host parents use multiple visual cues in rejecting parasitic eggs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(19), 8672-8676. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Merilaita S (2009). Animal camouflage: current issues and new perspectives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 364(1516), 423-427. Author URL.
Langmore NE, Stevens M, Maurer G, Kilner RM (2009). Are dark cuckoo eggs cryptic in host nests?. Animal Behaviour, 78(2), 461-468. Abstract.
Stevens M, Merilaita S (2009). Defining disruptive coloration and distinguishing its functions. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 364(1516), 481-488. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Winney IS, Cantor A, Graham J (2009). Outline and surface disruption in animal camouflage. Proc Biol Sci, 276(1657), 781-786. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Stoddard MC, Higham JP (2009). Studying primate color: Towards visual system-dependent methods. International Journal of Primatology, 30(6), 893-917. Abstract.
Stevens M, Cantor A, Graham J, Winney IS (2009). The function of animal 'eyespots': Conspicuousness but not eye mimicry is key. Current Zoology, 55(5). Abstract.
Stevens M, Castor-Perry SA, Price JRF (2009). The protective value of conspicuous signals is not impaired by shape, size, or position asymmetry. Behavioral Ecology, 20(1), 96-102. Abstract.
Stevens M, Hardman CJ, Stubbins CL (2008). Conspicuousness, not eye mimicry, makes "eyespots" effective antipredator signals. Behavioral Ecology, 19(3), 525-531. Abstract.
Stevens M, Yule DH, Ruxton GD (2008). Dazzle coloration and prey movement. Proc Biol Sci, 275(1651), 2639-2643. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Graham J, Winney IS, Cantor A (2008). Testing Thayer's hypothesis: can camouflage work by distraction?. Biol Lett, 4(6), 648-650. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Stubbins CL, Hardman CJ (2008). The anti-predator function of 'eyespots' on camouflaged and conspicuous prey. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62(11), 1787-1793. Abstract.
Houston AI, Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2007). Animal camouflage: Compromise or specialize in a 2 patch-type environment?. Behavioral Ecology, 18(4), 769-775. Abstract.
Rowland HM, Speed MP, Ruxton GD, Edmunds M, Stevens M, Harvey IF (2007). Countershading enhances cryptic protection: an experiment with wild birds and artificial prey. Animal Behaviour, 74(5), 1249-1258. Abstract.
Cuthill IC, Troscianko TS, Kibblewhite A, King O, Stevens M (2007). Edge enhancement in disruptive camouflage. PERCEPTION, 36(9), 1399-1399. Author URL.
Stevens M, Hopkins E, Hinde W, Adcock A, Connolly Y, Troscianko T, Cuthill IC (2007). Field experiments on the effectiveness of 'eyespots' as predator deterrents. Animal Behaviour, 74(5), 1215-1227. Abstract.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2007). Hidden messages: Are ultraviolet signals a special channel in avian communication?. BioScience, 57(6), 501-507. Abstract.
Stevens M (2007). Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration. Proc Biol Sci, 274(1617), 1457-1464. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Párraga CA, Cuthill IC, Partridge JC, Troscianko TS (2007). Using digital photography to study animal coloration. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 90(2), 211-237. Abstract.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2006). Disruptive coloration, crypsis and edge detection in early visual processing. Proc Biol Sci, 273(1598), 2141-2147. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC, Windsor AMM, Walker HJ (2006). Disruptive contrast in animal camouflage. Proc Biol Sci, 273(1600), 2433-2438. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC, Alejandro Párraga C, Troscianko T (2006). The effectiveness of disruptive coloration as a concealment strategy. Prog Brain Res, 155, 49-64. Abstract.  Author URL.
Cuthill IC, Stevens M, Windsor AMM, Walker HJ (2006). The effects of pattern symmetry on detection of disruptive and background matching coloration. Behavioral Ecology, 17(5), 828-832.
Troscianko T, Cuthill IC, Stevens M, Graham L, Richardson S, Parraga CA (2005). Detection of cryptic targets in avian vision: a field study. PERCEPTION, 34, 47-47. Author URL.
Cuthill IC, Stevens M, Sheppard J, Maddocks T, Párraga CA, Troscianko TS (2005). Disruptive coloration and background pattern matching. Nature, 434(7029), 72-74. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2005). The role of eyespots as anti-predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc, 80(4), 573-588. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2005). The unsuitability of HTML-based colour charts for estimating animal colours--a comment on Berggren and Merilä (2004). Front Zool, 2 Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC, Sheppard J, Maddocks T, Troscianko T, Parraga CA (2004). Disruptive colouration and background pattern matching in insect crypsis. PERCEPTION, 33, 35-36. Author URL.
Franks NR, Dornhaus A, Fitzsimmons JP, Stevens M (2003). Speed versus accuracy in collective decision making. Proc Biol Sci, 270(1532), 2457-2463. Abstract.  Author URL.

Chapters

Stevens M, Merilaita S (2011). Animal Camouflage: an Introduction. In Stevens M, Merilaita S (Eds.) Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms & Function, Cambridge University Press, 1-16.
Stevens M (2011). Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms & Function. In Stevens M, Merilaita S (Eds.) Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms & Function, Cambridge University Press. Abstract.
Merilaita S, Stevens M (2011). Crypsis Through Background Matching. In Stevens M, Merilaita S (Eds.) Animal Camouflage, Cambridge University Press, 17-33.
Mappes J, Stevens M (2010). Information Use and Sensory Ecology. In Westneat D, Fox C (Eds.) Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology, OUP USA, 148-161.  Abstract.
Caro T, Merilaita S, Stevens M (2008). The Colours of Animals: from Wallace to the Present Day. I. Cryptic Colouration. In Smith CH, Beccaloni G (Eds.) Natural Selection and Beyond: the Intellectual Legacy of Alfred Russel Wallace, OUP Oxford, 125-143.  Abstract.

Publications by year


In Press

Nokelainen O, Stevens M (In Press). Camouflage. Curr Biol, 26(14), R654-R656. Abstract.  Author URL.
Blount J, Paul SC, Stevens M, birkett M, Pell JK (In Press). Parental phenotype not predator cues influence egg warning coloration and defence levels. Animal Behaviour Full text.
Briolat E, Zagrobelny M, Blount J, Stevens M (In Press). Sex differences but no evidence of quantitative honesty in the warning signals of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae L.). Evolution Full text.

2018

Badas EP, Martínez J, Rivero-de Aguilar J, Ponce C, Stevens M, Merino S (2018). Colour change in a structural ornament is related to individual quality, parasites and mating patterns in the blue tit. Naturwissenschaften, 105, 17-17. Full text.
Nokelainen O, Stevens M, Caro T (2018). Colour polymorphism in the coconut crab (Birgus latro). Evolutionary Ecology, 32, 75-75. Full text.
Blount J, Paul S, Stevens M, Burton J, Pell J, Burkett M (2018). Invasive egg predators and food availability interactively affect maternal investment in egg chemical defence. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 4-4. Full text.

2017

Duarte RC, Flores AAV, Stevens M (2017). Camouflage through colour change: mechanisms, adaptive value, and ecological significance. Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences, 372, 20160342-20160342. Full text.
Niu Y, Chen Z, Stevens M, Sun H (2017). Divergence in cryptic leaf colour provides local camouflage in an alpine plant. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284, 20171654-20171654. Full text.
Arenas LM, Stevens M (2017). Diversity in warning coloration is easily recognised by avian predators. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 30, 1288-1302. Full text.
Caves EM, Stevens M, Spottiswoode CN (2017). Does coevolution with a shared parasite drive hosts to partition their defences among species?. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1854), 20170272-20170272. Abstract.
Geltsch N, Moskat C, Elek Z, Ban M, Stevens M (2017). Egg spotting pattern in the common cuckoo and its great reed warbler host: a century perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 121, 50-50. Full text.
Badás EP, Martínez J, Rivero-de Aguilar J, Stevens M, van der Velde M, Komdeur J, Merino S (2017). Eggshell pigmentation in the blue tit: male quality matters. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71, 57-57. Full text.
Stevens M, Troscianko J, Wilson-Aggarwal JK, Spottiswoode CN (2017). Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 1, 1325-1325. Full text.
Koski T-M, Lindstedt C, Klemola T, Troscianko J, Mäntylä E, Tyystjärvi E, Stevens M, Helander M, Laaksonen T (2017). Insect herbivory may cause changes in the visual properties of leaves and affect the camouflage of herbivores to avian predators. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 97-97. Full text.
Troscianko J, Skelhorn J, Stevens M (2017). Quantifying camouflage: how to predict detectability from appearance. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17, 7-7. Full text.
Troscianko J, Wilson-Aggarwal J, Griffiths D, Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2017). Relative advantages of dichromatic and trichromatic color vision in camouflage breaking. Behavioral Ecology, 28, 556-556. Full text.
Smithers SP, Wilson A, Stevens M (2017). Rock pool gobies change their body pattern in response to background features. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 121, 109-121. Full text.
Pérez-Rodríguez L, Jovani R, Stevens M (2017). Shape matters: animal colour patterns as signals of individual quality. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284, 20162446-20162446. Full text.
Cuthill IC, Allen WL, Arbuckle K, Caspers B, Chaplin G, Hauber ME, Hill GE, Jablonski NG, Jiggins CD, Kelber A, et al (2017). The biology of color. Science, 357(6350), eaan0221-eaan0221. Abstract.
Nokelainen O, Hubbard N, Lown AE, Wood LE, Stevens M (2017). Through predators’ eyes - phenotype-environment associations in shore crab coloration at different spatial scales. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 122, 738-751. Full text.

2016

Dell'aglio DD, Stevens M, Jiggins CD (2016). Avoidance of an aposematically coloured butterfly by wild birds in a tropical forest. Ecological Entomology, 41(5), 627-632. Abstract.
Medina I, Troscianko J, Stevens M, Langmore NE (2016). Brood Parasitism is Linked to Egg Pattern Diversity within and among Species of Australian Passerines. Am Nat, 187(3), 351-362. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Troscianko J, Wilson-Aggarwal J, Stevens M, Spottiswoode CN (2016). Camou age predicts survival in ground-nesting birds. Scientific Reports, 6 Full text.
Stevens M (2016). Cheats and Deceits How Animals and Plants Exploit and Mislead., Oxford University Press. Abstract.
Stevens M (2016). Color Change, Phenotypic Plasticity, and Camouflage. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 4 Full text.
Wilson-Aggarwal, Troscianko, Stevens M, Spottiswoode CN (2016). Escape distance in ground-nesting birds differs with individual level of camouflage. The American Naturalist, 188, 231-231. Full text.
Marshall KLA, Philpott KE, Stevens M (2016). Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camou age against avian predators. Scientific Reports, 6 Full text.
Troscianko, Wilson-Aggarwal, Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2016). Nest covering in plovers: how modifying the visual environment influences egg camouflage. Ecology and Evolution, 6, 7536-7545. Full text.
Chan IZW, Stevens M, Todd PA (2016). Quantifying shell pattern and colour polymorphism in the button snail Umbonium vestiarium (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochacea) and comparing morph frequencies between two populations using the Mantel test. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 2016, 22-32. Abstract.
Duarte RC, Stevens M, Flores AAV (2016). Shape, colour plasticity, and habitat use indicate morph-specific camouflage strategies in a marine shrimp. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 16, 218-218. Full text.
Caro T, Sherratt TN, Stevens M (2016). The ecology of multiple colour defences. Evolutionary Ecology, 30, 797-809. Full text.
Stevens M (2016). When to attack defended prey? a comment on Skelhorn et al. Behavioral Ecology, 27(4).

2015

Stevens M (2015). Anti-Predator Coloration and Behaviour: a Longstanding Topic with Many Outstanding Questions. CURRENT ZOOLOGY, 61(4), 702-707. Author URL.
Flores EE, Stevens M, Moore AJ, Rowland HM, Blount JD (2015). Body size but not warning signal luminance influences predation risk in recently metamorphosed poison frogs. Ecology and evolution, 5(20), 4603-4616. Abstract.  Full text.
Burriss R, Troscianko J, Lovell PG, Fulford AJC, Stevens M, Quigley R, Payne J, Saxton TK, Rowland HM (2015). Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System. PLoS ONE, 10, e0130093-e0130093.
Marshall KL, Philpot KE, Stevens M (2015). Conspicuous male coloration impairs survival against avian predators in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii. Ecology and evolution, 5(18), 4115-4131. Abstract.
Troscianko J, Stevens M, Skelhorn J (2015). Does Disruptive Camouflage Disrupt Search Image Formation?. PERCEPTION, 44(10), 1239-1240. Author URL.
Stevens M (2015). Evolutionary Ecology: Insect Mothers Control Their Egg Colours. Curr Biol, 25(17), R755-R757. Abstract.  Author URL.
Caves EM, Stevens M, Iversen ES, Spottiswoode CN (2015). Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved egg signatures with elevated information content. Proc Biol Sci, 282(1810). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Troscianko J, Stevens M (2015). Image Calibration and Analysis Toolbox – a free software suite for objectively measuring reflectance, colour and pattern. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 1320-1331. Full text.
Marshall KLA, Philpot KE, Damas-Moreira I, Stevens M (2015). Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage. PLoS One, 10(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Broderick AC, Godley BJ, Lown AE, Troscianko J, Weber N, Weber SB (2015). Phenotype-environment matching in sand fleas. Biol Lett, 11(8). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Arenas LM, Walter D, Stevens M (2015). Signal honesty and predation risk among a closely related group of aposematic species. Scientific Reports, 5, 11021-11021. Full text.
Ruxton GD, Stevens M (2015). The evolutionary ecology of decorating behaviour. Biol Lett, 11(6). Abstract.  Author URL.
Hughes AE, Magor-Elliott RS, Stevens M (2015). The role of stripe orientation in target capture success. Frontiers in Zoology, 12, 17-17. Full text.

2014

Stevens M, Lown AE, Wood LE (2014). Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from different habitats. PLoS One, 9(12). Abstract.  Author URL.
Kang C, Stevens M, Moon J-Y, Lee S-I, Jablonski PG (2014). Camouflage through behavior in moths: the role of background matching and disruptive coloration. Behavioral Ecology
Allen WL, Stevens M, Higham JP (2014). Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals. Nat Commun, 5 Abstract.  Author URL.
Arenas LM, Troscianko J, Stevens M (2014). Color contrast and stability as key elements for effective warning signals. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2
Stevens M, Lown AE, Wood LE (2014). Colour change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2
Stevens M (2014). Confusion and illusion: understanding visual traits and behavior. A comment on Kelley and Kelley. Behavioral Ecology, 25(3), 464-465.
Stevens M, Ruxton GD (2014). Do animal eyespots really mimic eyes?. Current Zoology, 60(1), 26-36. Abstract.
Stevens M (2014). Evolution: predator versus parasite. Curr Biol, 24(10), R388-R390. Abstract.  Author URL.
Winters AE, Stevens M, Mitchell C, Blomberg SP, Blount JD (2014). Maternal effects and warning signal honesty in eggs and offspring of an aposematic ladybird beetle. Functional Ecology, 28(5), 1187-1196. Full text.
Hughes AE, Stevens M, Tolhurst DJ (2014). Methods and mechanisms of motion dazzle. I-PERCEPTION, 5(5). Author URL.
Hughes AE, Troscianko J, Stevens M (2014). Motion dazzle and the effects of target patterning on capture success. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14
Hughes AE, Troscianko J, Stevens M (2014). Motion dazzle and the effects of target patterning on capture success. BMC Evol Biol, 14 Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Lown AE, Denton AM (2014). Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage. PLoS One, 9
Marshall KLA, Stevens M (2014). Wall lizards display conspicuous signals to conspecifics and reduce detection by avian predators. Behavioral Ecology

2013

(2013). A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment. Proceedings. Biological sciences / the Royal Society, 280(1756). Abstract.
Walker LK, Stevens M, Karadaş F, Kilner RM, Ewen JG (2013). A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment. Proc Biol Sci, 280(1756). Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2013). Bird brood parasitism. Curr Biol, 23(20), R909-R913. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Rong CP, Todd PA (2013). Colour change and camouflage in the horned ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109(2), 257-270. Abstract.
Stevens M (2013). Concealing Coloration in Animals. Animal Behaviour, 86(6), 1333-1334.
Troscianko J, Lown AE, Hughes AE, Stevens M (2013). Defeating crypsis: detection and learning of camouflage strategies. PLoS One, 8(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Flores EE, Stevens M, Moore AJ, Blount JD (2013). Diet, development and the optimization of warning signals in post-metamorphic green and black poison frogs. Functional Ecology, 27(3), 816-829. Abstract.
Flores EE, Stevens M, Moore AJ, Blount JD (2013). Diet, development and the optimization of warning signals in post-metamorphic green and black poison frogs. Functional Ecology
Teasdale LC, Stevens M, Stuart-Fox D (2013). Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26(5), 1035-1046. Abstract.
Teasdale LC, Stevens M, Stuart-Fox D (2013). Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs. Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Stevens M (2013). Evolutionary ecology: knowing how to hide your eggs. Curr Biol, 23(3), R106-R108. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2013). Exchanging messages between plants and animals. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28(7), 386-387.
Stevens M, Troscianko J, Spottiswoode CN (2013). Repeated targeting of the same hosts by a brood parasite compromises host egg rejection. Nat Commun, 4 Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Marshall KLA, Troscianko J, Finlay S, Burnand D, Chadwick SL (2013). Revealed by conspicuousness: Distractive markings reduce camouflage. Behavioral Ecology, 24(1), 213-222. Abstract.
Stevens M (2013). Sensory Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution., OUP Oxford.
Higham JP, Pfefferle D, Heistermann M, Maestripieri D, Stevens M (2013). Signaling in multiple modalities in male rhesus macaques: sex skin coloration and barks in relation to androgen levels, social status, and mating behavior. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1-13.
Higham JP, Pfefferle D, Heistermann M, Maestripieri D, Stevens M (2013). Signaling in multiple modalities in male rhesus macaques: sex skin coloration and barks in relation to androgen levels, social status, and mating behavior. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY, 67(9), 1457-1469. Author URL.
Stevens M, Troscianko J, Marshall KLA, Finlay S (2013). What is camouflage through distractive markings a reply to Merilaita et al. (2013). Behavioral Ecology, 24(5).

2012

Merrill RM, Wallbank RWR, Bull V, Salazar PCA, Mallet J, Stevens M, Jiggins CD (2012). Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue. Proc Biol Sci, 279(1749), 4907-4913. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hughes A, Stevens M, Tolhurst D (2012). Factors that affect tracking of occluded target motion. PERCEPTION, 41, 118-118. Author URL.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2012). Host-Parasite Arms Races and Rapid Changes in Bird Egg Appearance. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 179(5), 633-648. Author URL.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2012). Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance. Am Nat, 179(5), 633-648. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Ruxton GD (2012). Linking the evolution and form of warning coloration in nature. Proc Biol Sci, 279(1728), 417-426. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hughes A, Troscianko J, Tolhurst D, Stevens M (2012). Prey movement and the mechanisms of dazzle coloration. PERCEPTION, 41(10), 1271-1271. Author URL.

2011

Stevens M, Merilaita S (2011). Animal Camouflage: an Introduction. In Stevens M, Merilaita S (Eds.) Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms & Function, Cambridge University Press, 1-16.
Stevens M (2011). Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms & Function. In Stevens M, Merilaita S (Eds.) Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms & Function, Cambridge University Press. Abstract.
Stevens M, Merilaita S (2011). Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function., Cambridge University Press.
Stevens M (2011). Avian vision and egg colouration: Concepts and measurements. Avian Biology Research, 4(4), 168-184. Abstract.
Stoddard MC, Stevens M (2011). Avian vision and the evolution of egg color mimicry in the common cuckoo. Evolution, 65(7), 2004-2013. Abstract.  Author URL.
Merilaita S, Stevens M (2011). Crypsis Through Background Matching. In Stevens M, Merilaita S (Eds.) Animal Camouflage, Cambridge University Press, 17-33.
Lindstedt C, Eager H, Ihalainen E, Kahilainen A, Stevens M, Mappes J (2011). Direction and strength of selection by predators for the color of the aposematic wood tiger moth. Behavioral Ecology, 22(3), 580-587. Abstract.
Higham JP, Hughes KD, Brent LJN, Dubuc C, Engelhardt A, Heistermann M, Maestriperi D, Santos LR, Stevens M (2011). Familiarity affects the assessment of female facial signals of fertility by free-ranging male rhesus macaques. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1723), 3452-3458. Abstract.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2011). How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences. Proc Biol Sci, 278(1724), 3566-3573. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Searle WTL, Seymour JE, Marshall KLA, Ruxton GD (2011). Motion dazzle and camouflage as distinct anti-predator defenses. BMC Biol, 9 Abstract.  Author URL.
Tanaka KD, Morimoto G, Stevens M, Ueda K (2011). Rethinking visual supernormal stimuli in cuckoos: Visual modeling of host and parasite signals. Behavioral Ecology, 22(5), 1012-1019. Abstract.
Langmore NE, Stevens M, Maurer G, Heinsohn R, Hall ML, Peters A, Kilner RM (2011). Visual mimicry of host nestlings by cuckoos. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1717), 2455-2463. Abstract.

2010

Higham JP, Brent LJN, Dubuc C, Accamando AK, Engelhardt A, Gerald MS, Heistermann M, Stevens M (2010). Color signal information content and the eye of the beholder: a case study in the rhesus macaque. Behavioral Ecology, 21(4), 739-746. Abstract.
Mappes J, Stevens M (2010). Information Use and Sensory Ecology. In Westneat D, Fox C (Eds.) Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology, OUP USA, 148-161.  Abstract.
Stoddard MC, Stevens M (2010). Pattern mimicry of host eggs by the common cuckoo, as seen through a bird's eye. Proc Biol Sci, 277(1686), 1387-1393. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2010). Sensory ecology, evolution, and behavior. Current Zoology, 56(3).
Shultziner D, Stevens T, Stevens M, Stewart BA, Hannagan RJ, Saltini-Semerari G (2010). The causes and scope of political egalitarianism during the Last Glacial: a multi-disciplinary perspective. Biology and Philosophy, 25(3), 319-346. Abstract.
Sandre SL, Stevens M, Mappes J (2010). The effect of predator appetite, prey warning coloration and luminance on predator foraging decisions. Behaviour, 147(9), 1121-1143. Abstract.
Spottiswoode CN, Stevens M (2010). Visual modeling shows that avian host parents use multiple visual cues in rejecting parasitic eggs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(19), 8672-8676. Abstract.  Author URL.

2009

Stevens M, Merilaita S (2009). Animal camouflage: current issues and new perspectives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 364(1516), 423-427. Author URL.
Langmore NE, Stevens M, Maurer G, Kilner RM (2009). Are dark cuckoo eggs cryptic in host nests?. Animal Behaviour, 78(2), 461-468. Abstract.
Stevens M, Merilaita S (2009). Defining disruptive coloration and distinguishing its functions. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 364(1516), 481-488. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Winney IS, Cantor A, Graham J (2009). Outline and surface disruption in animal camouflage. Proc Biol Sci, 276(1657), 781-786. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Stoddard MC, Higham JP (2009). Studying primate color: Towards visual system-dependent methods. International Journal of Primatology, 30(6), 893-917. Abstract.
Stevens M, Cantor A, Graham J, Winney IS (2009). The function of animal 'eyespots': Conspicuousness but not eye mimicry is key. Current Zoology, 55(5). Abstract.
Stevens M, Castor-Perry SA, Price JRF (2009). The protective value of conspicuous signals is not impaired by shape, size, or position asymmetry. Behavioral Ecology, 20(1), 96-102. Abstract.

2008

Stevens M, Hardman CJ, Stubbins CL (2008). Conspicuousness, not eye mimicry, makes "eyespots" effective antipredator signals. Behavioral Ecology, 19(3), 525-531. Abstract.
Stevens M, Yule DH, Ruxton GD (2008). Dazzle coloration and prey movement. Proc Biol Sci, 275(1651), 2639-2643. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Graham J, Winney IS, Cantor A (2008). Testing Thayer's hypothesis: can camouflage work by distraction?. Biol Lett, 4(6), 648-650. Abstract.  Author URL.
Caro T, Merilaita S, Stevens M (2008). The Colours of Animals: from Wallace to the Present Day. I. Cryptic Colouration. In Smith CH, Beccaloni G (Eds.) Natural Selection and Beyond: the Intellectual Legacy of Alfred Russel Wallace, OUP Oxford, 125-143.  Abstract.
Stevens M, Stubbins CL, Hardman CJ (2008). The anti-predator function of 'eyespots' on camouflaged and conspicuous prey. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62(11), 1787-1793. Abstract.

2007

Houston AI, Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2007). Animal camouflage: Compromise or specialize in a 2 patch-type environment?. Behavioral Ecology, 18(4), 769-775. Abstract.
Rowland HM, Speed MP, Ruxton GD, Edmunds M, Stevens M, Harvey IF (2007). Countershading enhances cryptic protection: an experiment with wild birds and artificial prey. Animal Behaviour, 74(5), 1249-1258. Abstract.
Cuthill IC, Troscianko TS, Kibblewhite A, King O, Stevens M (2007). Edge enhancement in disruptive camouflage. PERCEPTION, 36(9), 1399-1399. Author URL.
Stevens M, Hopkins E, Hinde W, Adcock A, Connolly Y, Troscianko T, Cuthill IC (2007). Field experiments on the effectiveness of 'eyespots' as predator deterrents. Animal Behaviour, 74(5), 1215-1227. Abstract.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2007). Hidden messages: Are ultraviolet signals a special channel in avian communication?. BioScience, 57(6), 501-507. Abstract.
Stevens M (2007). Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration. Proc Biol Sci, 274(1617), 1457-1464. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Párraga CA, Cuthill IC, Partridge JC, Troscianko TS (2007). Using digital photography to study animal coloration. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 90(2), 211-237. Abstract.

2006

Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2006). Disruptive coloration, crypsis and edge detection in early visual processing. Proc Biol Sci, 273(1598), 2141-2147. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC, Windsor AMM, Walker HJ (2006). Disruptive contrast in animal camouflage. Proc Biol Sci, 273(1600), 2433-2438. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC, Alejandro Párraga C, Troscianko T (2006). The effectiveness of disruptive coloration as a concealment strategy. Prog Brain Res, 155, 49-64. Abstract.  Author URL.
Cuthill IC, Stevens M, Windsor AMM, Walker HJ (2006). The effects of pattern symmetry on detection of disruptive and background matching coloration. Behavioral Ecology, 17(5), 828-832.

2005

Troscianko T, Cuthill IC, Stevens M, Graham L, Richardson S, Parraga CA (2005). Detection of cryptic targets in avian vision: a field study. PERCEPTION, 34, 47-47. Author URL.
Cuthill IC, Stevens M, Sheppard J, Maddocks T, Párraga CA, Troscianko TS (2005). Disruptive coloration and background pattern matching. Nature, 434(7029), 72-74. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M (2005). The role of eyespots as anti-predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc, 80(4), 573-588. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stevens M, Cuthill IC (2005). The unsuitability of HTML-based colour charts for estimating animal colours--a comment on Berggren and Merilä (2004). Front Zool, 2 Abstract.  Author URL.

2004

Stevens M, Cuthill IC, Sheppard J, Maddocks T, Troscianko T, Parraga CA (2004). Disruptive colouration and background pattern matching in insect crypsis. PERCEPTION, 33, 35-36. Author URL.

2003

Franks NR, Dornhaus A, Fitzsimmons JP, Stevens M (2003). Speed versus accuracy in collective decision making. Proc Biol Sci, 270(1532), 2457-2463. Abstract.  Author URL.

Martin_Stevens Details from cache as at 2018-05-27 20:47:24

Refresh publications

Committee/panel activities

Director of Impact, Bioscience Penryn Campus.

Board of Directors for the Zoological Lighting Institute (2016-)

BBSRC Pool of Experts (for assessing grant applications; 2014-)

BBSRC Schools Regional Champion for the SW (2014/15)

Nuffield Foundation Undergraduate Bursary panel member (2010 & 2011).

Memberships: Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB); Applied Vision Association (AVA); International Primatological Society (IPS); International Society for Behavioral Ecology (ISBE).

Regular reviewer for a wide range of science, biology, sensory, and behaviour journals (more than 35), including Science, Current Biology, PNAS, Evolution, Proceedings B, American Naturalist, and Journal of Experimental Biology.

I was named as a ‘Top Referee’ for 2008, 2011, and 2012 for Proceedings of the Royal Society, B.


Editorial responsibilities

Guest Editor Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B: ‘Animal Camouflage: Current Issues and New Perspectives’ (2009, Volume: 364, Issue: 1516), involving contributions from biologists, computer scientists, psychologists, and art historians.

I have edited a book: ‘Animal Camouflage: From Mechanisms to Function’, 2011, Cambridge University Press.

Guest Editor Current Zoology: ‘Sensory Ecology, Evolution, and Behaviour’ (2010, volume 56, issue 3), involving contributions from leading sensory ecologists working on a range of subjects and sensory modalities.

I am an Editor for Current Zoology, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, and BMC Zoology.


Invited lectures

A range of public lectures including at the Royal Institution, Hay Festival, Royal Geographic Society, and more.

UK: University of Sussex (Biology & Environmental Science); University of Exeter (Psychology); Royal Holloway (Psychology); Newcastle University (Neuroscience); University of Oxford (Zoology, EGI); University of Edinburgh (Institute for Evolutionary Biology); University of Bristol (Vision Institute and School of Biological Sciences); University of Bath (Biology & Biochemistry); International Primatological Conference, Edinburgh (2008).

Mainland Europe: Stockholm University (Zoology) Sweden; University of Jyväskylä (Biological and Environmental Sciences), Finland; Uppsala University (Ecology & Evolution), Sweden; Bern University (Institute of Ecology & Evolution), Switzerland; European Congress on Behavioural Biology, Dijon, France (2008); European Society for Evolutionary Biology, Lisbon, Portugal (2013); University of Geneva; Wiko, Berlin (2016).

USA: Wake Forest University (Biology); University of Nebraska (Biology); University of Chicago (Ecology and Evolution); Stanford University (Biology); Princeton University (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology); University of California Davis (Biology); University of California Santa Cruz (Biology); University of California LA (Biology); New York University (Anthropology); Hunter College, City University New York (Psychology), Smithsonian/Army and Navy Club, Washington DC, USA.

Asia: National University of Singapore (Biology x 2); International Primatological Conference, Kyoto, Japan (2010); Integrative Behavioral Biology, Xi’an, China (2011, Keynote); International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism, Hainan, China (2012).


Media Coverage

My work has been covered in a wide range of media including on various occasions on BBC Earth News, the New York Times, the Times, LA Times, Japan Times, USA Today, the Telegraph, the Daily Mail, the Independent, the Australian, Time Magazine, New Scientist, National Geographic, MSNBC, BBC Radio 5 Live, BBC Radio Wales, BBC Radio Scotland, CBC Radio Canada, NPR Radio USA, German Radio WDR 5, Discovery, Nature, Science, TREE, Proceedings B, Discover, Natural History Magazine, Discovery Canada, Nature News, plus a wide range of national newspapers around the world and internet sites.

TV appearances: BBC 2, Inside the Animal Mind, programme 1 (28 January 2014); BBC1 The One Show (25 February 2014); National Geographic, Jurassic CSI, programme 1 (2011).

I have also been contacted by and appeared in a wide range of other reactive media outlets, including radio programmes of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, CBC Quirks and Quarks, and NPR on topics such as why zebras have stripes and animal camouflage and behaviour. I have also advised a range of organisations including the BBC1 and BBC 2, Channel 4, PBS, and the History Channel on TV programmes, and for other publications such as BBC Gardeners' World, Smithsonian and various natural history magazines. Some of my research methods have been used in interactive museum exhibitions and school teaching in the USA. I have also helped with art exhibitions related to animal coloration.

I am a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.

I and module coordinator and deliver the third year Sensory Ecology course (BIO3410). I am also module coordinator for the forthcoming Hong Kong MSci field course. I have signficantly contributed to the second year Biology of Birds module (BIO2439), and teach on the Cornwall Grand Challenges fieldcourse. I also have various undergraduate tutees, and both undergraduate and MSc project students.

I have recently written a textbook: Stevens, M. Sensory Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution. 2013. Oxford University Press. This covers key topics in sensory ecology from an evolutionary and behavioural perspective.

I have delivered lecture modules at the University of Cambridge and was Director of Studies for Churchill College Natural Science students. In addition to departmental teaching, I have given guest lectures to students in National University of Singapore, Shaanxi Normal University China, New York University, and City University New York.

Research Fellows

  • Molly Rogers
  • Rosalind Evans

Postdoctoral researchers

  • Jolyon Troscianko (BBSRC Post-doctoral Research Associate): Working on a grant Predator Vision and Avian Egg Camouflage, which investigates the type and function of camouflage in the eggs, chicks, and adults of ground nesting birds in South Africa (mainly plovers) and in Zambia (mainly nightjars).

Postgraduate researchers

  • Emmanuelle Briolat BBSRC funded PhD student working on warning signals in moths
  • Denise Dalbosco Dell'Aglio (at Cambridge) Cambridge Overseas Brazilian Trust PhD student co-supervised with Chris Jiggins and based in the Department of Zoology at Cambridge. She is working on Heliconius mimicry, bird and butterfly vision.
  • Sam Green
  • Sara Mynott NERC funded PhD student working on climate change and camouflage in marine animals
  • Tasha Price
  • Jenna Proctor
  • Alice Rosen
  • Alexandra Török BBSRC funded PhD student working on the functional and mechanistic basis of startle and flash displays in animals as anti-predator defences.

Back | Edit Profile